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The concept of trade-offs is central to our understanding of life-history evolution. The underlying mechanisms, however, have been little studied. Oxidative stress results from a mismatch between the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the organism's capacity to mitigate their damaging effects. Managing oxidative stress is likely to be(More)
One hypothesis for why females in many animal species frequently prefer to mate with the most elaborately ornamented males predicts that availability of carotenoid pigments is a potentially limiting factor for both ornament expression and immune function. An implicit assumption of this hypothesis is that males that can afford to produce more elaborate(More)
Individual differences in the energy cost of self-maintenance (resting metabolic rate, RMR) are substantial and the focus of an emerging research area. These differences may influence fitness because self-maintenance is considered as a life-history component along with growth and reproduction. In this review, we ask why do some individuals have two to three(More)
Carotenoids are responsible for much of the yellow, orange and red pigmentation in the animal kingdom, and the importance of such coloration as an honest signal of individual quality has received widespread attention. In particular, owing to the multiple roles of carotenoids as pigments, antioxidants and immunostimulants, carotenoid-based coloration has(More)
There are many ecological advantages to attaining a large body size as fast as possible (such as reduced risks of being caught by predators or increased reproductive success). However, studies in several taxa indicate that fast growth in itself can have negative as well as positive effects. There appears to be a link between accelerated growth and lifespan:(More)
Despite accumulating evidence from in vitro studies that cellular senescence is linked to telomere dynamics, how this relates to whole-organism senescence and longevity is poorly understood and controversial. Using data on telomere length in red blood cells and long-term survival from wild Alpine swifts of a range of ages, we report that the telomere length(More)
Two related experiments examined the relationship between plasma cortisol concentrations and the development of social hierarchies in fish. In the first, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brown trout, Salmo trutta, were observed for dominance interactions when confined within single-species pairs for 4, 48, or 168 h. Subordinate members of a pair(More)
Some of the most spectacular exaggerated sexual ornaments are carotenoid dependent. It has been suggested that such ornaments have evolved because carotenoid pigments are limiting for both signal expression and in their role as antioxidants and immunostimulants. An implicit assumption of this hypothesis is that males which can afford to produce more(More)
Although correlations have frequently been observed between specific physiological and behavioural traits across a range of animal taxa, the nature of these associations has been shown to vary. Here we argue that a major source of this inconsistency is the influence of environmental stressors, which seem capable of revealing, masking, or modulating(More)
Despite convincing evidence that carotenoid availability can have positive physiological effects, we still lack information on the functional consequences of carotenoid limitation at the behavioral level. Given the role carotenoids play in mitigating oxidative stress produced during physical activity and as immunostimulants, one behavioral function on which(More)