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Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can result in debilitating neurological syndromes collectively known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Although the HIV coat protein gp120 has been identified as a potent neurotoxin that enhances NMDA receptor function, the exact mechanisms for this effect are not known. Here we provide evidence(More)
The expression of the Fos proto-oncogene protein has been used as an anatomical marker of activated brain areas. Detection of Fos immunoreactivity can provide information about the sites of action of various stimuli at the level of single cell resolution. Following intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (16% w/v), Fos immunoreactivity was induced in several(More)
The cytokine, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), can modulate both immune and neuroendocrine events. Alteration of IL-1 beta expression by exogenous factors, such as morphine, may affect the neuro-endocrine-immune axis. Brain sections from male rats implanted with either morphine or placebo pellets were stained for IL-1 beta immunoreactivity. The results(More)
It is thought that the physiological actions of endogenous cannabinoid arachidonylethanolamide (AEA), as well as exogenous cannabinoids such as Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are mediated by two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, which have recently been characterized. Injection of AEA leads to alterations in motor behavior and endocrine(More)
Antiretroviral therapy extends the lifespan of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but many survivors develop premature impairments in cognition. These residual cognitive impairments may involve aberrant deposition of amyloid β-peptides (Aβ). By unknown mechanisms, Aβ accumulates in the lysosomal and autophagic compartments of neurons in(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a cytokine involved in a variety of biological activities. It has been hypothesized that the immunomodulatory effects of IL-1 are the result of both direct action on immune cells and indirect action on a regulatory cascade mediated through the hypothalamus. Chronic exposure to substances of abuse, such as morphine, appears to(More)
Drug abuse in HIV-infected individuals accelerates the onset and progression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Opiates are a class of commonly abused drugs that have interactive effects with neurotoxic HIV proteins that facilitate glial dysfunction, neuronal damage and death. While the combined effects of neurotoxic HIV proteins and(More)
Attention plays a critical role in action selection. However, the role of attention in eye movements is complicated as these movements can be either voluntary or involuntary, with, in some circumstances (antisaccades), these two actions competing with each other for execution. But attending to the location of an impending eye movement is only one facet of(More)
Objective. To report a case of unusually widespread sporadic venous malformations of the head and neck associated with normal D-dimer levels and, due to the protean clinical manifestations and increased risk of coagulopathy of these lesions, to review their diagnosis and clinical management. Case Report. A 25-year-old man presented with a one-year history(More)
When full depth cues are available, size judgments are dominated by physical size. However, with reduced depth cues, size judgments are influenced less by physical size and more by projected size. By manipulating monocularly presented pictorial depth cues only, in this study we reduced depth cues further than had previous size judgment studies. Participants(More)
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