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Protein electrostatic properties stem from the proportion and distribution of polar and charged residues. Polar and charged residues regulate the electrostatic properties by forming short-range interactions, like salt-bridges and hydrogen-bonds, and by defining the over-all electrostatic environment in the protein. Electrostatics play a major role in(More)
Antibodies HyHEL8, HyHEL10, and HyHEL26 (HH8, HH10, and HH26, respectively) recognize highly overlapping epitopes on hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) with similar affinities, but with different specificities. HH8 binding to HEL is least sensitive toward mutations in the epitope and thus is most cross-reactive, HH26 is most sensitive, whereas the sensitivity of(More)
Protein folding, binding, catalytic activity and molecular recognition all involve molecular movements, with varying extents. The molecular movements are brought upon via flexible regions. Stemming from sequence, a fine tuning of electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the protein fold determine flexible and rigid regions. Studies show flexible regions(More)
Three antibodies, HyHEL-8 (HH8), HyHEL-10 (HH10), and HyHEL-26 (HH26) are specific for the same epitope on hen egg white lysozyme (HEL), and share >90% sequence homology. Their affinities vary by several orders of magnitude, and among the three antibodies, HH8 is the most cross-reactive with kinetics of binding that are relatively invariable compared to(More)
One nanosecond molecular dynamic (MD) simulation of anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) antibody HyHEL63 (HH63) complexed with HEL reveals rigid and flexible regions of the HH63 binding site. Fifty conformations, extracted from the MD trajectory at regular time intervals were superimposed on HH63-HEL X-ray crystal structure, and the root mean squared(More)
This perspective seeks to discuss why biology often modifies the fundamental iron-protoporphyrin IX moiety that is the very versatile cofactor of many heme proteins. A very common modification is the attachment of this cofactor via covalent bonds to two (or rarely one) sulfur atoms of cysteine residue side chains. This modification results in c-type(More)
1 NSec molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of anti-hen egg white antibody, HyHEL63 (HH63), complexed with HEL reveals important molecular interactions, not revealed in its X-ray crystal structure. These molecular interactions were predicted to be critical for the complex formation, based on structure–function studies of this complex and 3-other anti-HEL(More)
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