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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (approximately 22-nucleotide) regulatory molecules that block translation or induce degradation of target mRNAs. These have been identified in a wide range of organisms, including viruses. In particular, the oncogenic gammaherpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus encode miRNAs that could(More)
The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from smooth B. melitensis 16 M and a derived rough mutant, VTRM1 strain, were purified and characterized with respect to protein content and induction of immune responses in mice. Proteomic analysis showed 29 proteins present in OMVs from B. melitensis 16 M; some of them are well-known Brucella immunogens such as SOD,(More)
Brucella abortus has been shown to produce two siderophores: 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and brucebactin. Previous studies on Brucella have shown that 2,3-DHBA is associated with erythritol utilization and virulence in pregnant ruminants. The biosynthetic pathway and role of brucebactin are not known and the only gene shown to be involved so far is(More)
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are single-stranded, synthetic nucleic acid analogues containing a pseudopeptide backbone in place of the phosphodiester sugar-phosphate. When PNAs are covalently linked to cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) they readily penetrate the bacterial cell envelope, inhibit expression of targeted genes and cause growth inhibition both of(More)
Treatment and eradication of intracellular pathogens such as Brucella is difficult because infections are localized within phagocytic cells and most antibiotics, although highly active in vitro, do not actively pass through cellular membranes. Thus, an optimum strategy to treat these infections should address targeting of active drugs to the intracellular(More)
Bovine abortions caused by the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum have been responsible for severe economic losses to the cattle industry. Infected cows either experience abortion or transmit the parasite transplacentally at a rate of up to 95%. Neospora caninum vaccines that can prevent vertical transmission and ensure disruption in the life cycle of(More)
Human brucellosis, a zoonotic disease of major public health concern in several developing countries, is primarily caused by Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, and Brucella suis. No brucellosis vaccine is available for human use. The aim of this study was to determine if Brucella neotomae, a bacterium not known to cause disease in any host, can be used(More)
Brucellosis caused by Brucella species is reportedly the most common zoonotic infection worldwide. The bacterial pathogen is also classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a category (B) pathogen that has the potential for development as a bioweapon. Although eight genomes of Brucella have been sequenced, little information is(More)
Brucella neotomae is not known to be associated with clinical disease in any host species. Previous research suggested that B. neotomae might not express detectable levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), a periplasmic enzyme known to be involved in protecting Brucella from oxidative bactericidal effects of host phagocytes. This study was undertaken to(More)
Magnetic Block Ionomer Clusters (MBIClusters) with hydrophilic ionic cores and nonionic coronas have been prepared that have ultrahigh transverse NMR relaxivities together with capacities for incorporating high concentrations of polar antibiotic payloads. Magnetite-polymer nanoparticles were assembled by adsorbing the polyacrylate block of an(More)