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A desensitized aspartate kinase (AK) gene has been developed as a non-antibiotic selection marker for use in the production of transgenic chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Transgenic shoots regenerated from embryo explants bombarded with the desensitized AK gene were selected on media containing two amino acids, lysine and threonine (LT). Approximately 15% of(More)
BACKGROUND We hypothesized that the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) produces endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS In m Lepr(db) control mice, sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine induced dose-dependent vasodilation, and dilation to acetylcholine was blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor(More)
Signal transduction underlies how living organisms detect and respond to stimuli. A goal of synthetic biology is to rewire natural signal transduction systems. Bacteria, yeast, and plants sense environmental aspects through conserved histidine kinase (HK) signal transduction systems. HK protein components are typically comprised of multiple, relatively(More)
Our recent studies in SKH-1 hairless mice have demonstrated that topical exposure to nitrogen mustard (NM), an analog of sulfur mustard (SM), triggers the inflammatory response, microvesication and apoptotic cell death. Here, we sought to identify the mechanism/s involved in these NM-induced injury responses. Results obtained show that NM exposure of SKH-1(More)
Nitrogen mustard (NM), a structural analog of chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM), forms adducts and crosslinks with DNA, RNA and proteins. Here we studied the mechanism of NM-induced skin toxicity in response to double strand breaks (DSBs) resulting in cell cycle arrest to facilitate DNA repair, as a model for developing countermeasures against(More)
A monofunctional analog of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD), 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), induces tissue damage similar to HD. Herein we studied the molecular mechanisms associated with CEES-induced skin inflammation and toxicity in SKH-1 hairless mice. Topical CEES exposure caused an increase in oxidative stress as observed by enhanced(More)
Employing mouse skin epidermal JB6 cells and dermal fibroblasts, here we examined the mechanisms of DNA damage by 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of sulfur mustard (SM). CEES exposure caused H2A.X and p53 phosphorylation as well as p53 accumulation in both cell types, starting at 1h, that was sustained for 24h, indicating a(More)
Effective medical treatment and preventive measures for chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD)-caused incapacitating skin toxicity are lacking, because of limited knowledge of its mechanism of action. The proliferating basal epidermal cells are primary major sites of attack during HD-caused skin injury. Therefore, employing mouse JB6 and human HaCaT(More)
Our previous studies and other published reports on the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) and its analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) have indicated a role of oxidative stress in skin injuries caused by these vesicating agents. We examined the effects of the catalytic antioxidant AEOL 10150 in the attenuation of CEES-induced toxicity using(More)
Sulfur mustard (HD) is an alkylating and cytotoxic chemical warfare agent, which inflicts severe skin toxicity and an inflammatory response. Effective medical countermeasures against HD-caused skin toxicity are lacking due to limited knowledge of related mechanisms, which is mainly attributed to the requirement of more applicable and efficient animal skin(More)