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BACKGROUND India is home to 60% of the total global visceral leishmaniasis (VL) population. Use of long-term oral (e.g. miltefosine) and parenteral drugs, considered the mainstay for treatment of VL, is now faced with increased resistance, decreased efficacy, low compliance and safety issues. The authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of an alternate(More)
BACKGROUND Improved treatment approaches are needed for visceral leishmaniasis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of three potential short-course combination treatments compared with the standard monotherapy in India. METHODS Standard treatment (1 mg/kg amphotericin B infusion on alternate days for 30 days, total dose 15 mg/kg) was compared with three(More)
BACKGROUND Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL; also known as Kala-azar) is an ultimately fatal disease endemic in Bihar. A 2007 observational cohort study in Bihar of 251 patients with VL treated with 20 mg/Kg intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) demonstrated a 98% cure rate at 6-months. Between July 2007 and August 2012, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)(More)
BACKGROUND The skin disorder Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) occurs in up to 10% of patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. The pathogenesis of PKDL is not yet fully understood. Cases have been reported in India following therapy with most available treatments, but rarely in those treated with liposomal amphotericin B(More)
BACKGROUND Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL; also known as kala-azar) is an ultimately fatal disease endemic in the Indian state of Bihar, while HIV/AIDS is an emerging disease in this region. A 2011 observational cohort study conducted in Bihar involving 55 VL/HIV co-infected patients treated with 20-25 mg/kg intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome)(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne protozoan infection caused by the Leishmania donovani spp. complex. Typical disease manifestations include persistent fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia [1]. Without treatment, overt VL is universally fatal. The disease is a global health problem, with an estimated annual incidence of 200 000– 400 000(More)
BACKGROUND A proportion of all immunocompetent patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are known to relapse; however, the risk factors for relapse are not well understood. With the support of the Rajendra Memorial Research Institute (RMRI), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) implemented a program in Bihar, India, using intravenous liposomal(More)
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is an important factor in kala-azar transmission; hence its early detection and assessment of effective treatment is very important for disease control. In present study on 60 PKDL cases presented with macular, mixed papulonodular, or erythematous lesions, Leishmania parasites were demonstrated microscopically in(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania donovani, is a serious form of leishmaniasis and fatal if untreated. Nearly half of the VL cases are children. There are very few studies of renal function in pediatric visceral leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate renal dysfunction by studying glomerular filtration rate (GFR), microalbuminuria,(More)
BACKGROUND Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a skin disorder that usually occurs among patients with a past history of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Cases are also reported without a history of VL. There is no satisfactory treatment regimen available at present. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in two different doses(More)