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BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major public health problem in Bihar, accounting for 90% of all cases in India. Development of high levels of resistance to various existing drugs necessitated the search for alternative orally administered drugs. Hospital-based studies have shown that oral miltefosine is a highly effective treatment for VL both(More)
BACKGROUND Improved treatment approaches are needed for visceral leishmaniasis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of three potential short-course combination treatments compared with the standard monotherapy in India. METHODS Standard treatment (1 mg/kg amphotericin B infusion on alternate days for 30 days, total dose 15 mg/kg) was compared with three(More)
BACKGROUND Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL; also known as kala-azar) is an ultimately fatal disease endemic in the Indian state of Bihar, while HIV/AIDS is an emerging disease in this region. A 2011 observational cohort study conducted in Bihar involving 55 VL/HIV co-infected patients treated with 20-25 mg/kg intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome)(More)
We report two cases of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), which had subsequently developed after successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with miltefosine. Both patients had maculo-nodular lesions all over the body, and they were diagnosed as PKDL by parasitologic examination for Leishmania donovani bodies in a skin snip of lesions. Patients(More)
The value of a direct agglutination test (DAT) in the detection of subclinical infections with Leishmania donovani has recently been investigated in the Indian state of Bihar, after the sensitivity and specificity of the test had been determined. When used to screen sera from 108 parasitologically confirmed cases of visceral leishmaniasis, 50 patients with(More)
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) has important public health implications for transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Clinical and epidemiologic profiles of 102 PKDL patients showed that median age of males and females at the time of diagnosis was significantly different (P = 0.013). A significant association was observed between family(More)
From a hospital-based surveillance carried out in Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India, the socio-economic, demographic and treatment response information of 737 patients admitted with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) during January 2001-December 2003, were analysed. The disease was two times higher in males than in(More)
BACKGROUND A proportion of all immunocompetent patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are known to relapse; however, the risk factors for relapse are not well understood. With the support of the Rajendra Memorial Research Institute (RMRI), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) implemented a program in Bihar, India, using intravenous liposomal(More)
Digoxigenin-labelled total, Leishmania donovani DNA was used as a probe to detect the parasite in Indian Phlebotomus argentipes. The probe was quite sensitive, detecting as little as 0.3 pg parasite DNA, equivalent to approximately 100 parasites. Positive signals could be detected in 12 (32%) of the 38 small (two- to 30-fly) pools of the wild-caught P.(More)
BACKGROUND The Indian government proposes to eliminate kala-azar, which has been a serious public health problem in Bihar. This study aimed to assess the magnitude of unresponsiveness to sodium stibogluconate in the treatment of new cases of visceral leishmaniasis and to identify the associated factors. METHODS Patients with clinically and(More)