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BACKGROUND Maternal and neonatal mortality rates remain high in many low-income and middle-income countries. Different approaches for the improvement of birth outcomes have been used in community-based interventions, with heterogeneous effects on survival. We assessed the effects of women's groups practising participatory learning and action, compared with(More)
Changes in the distribution and quantity of laminin and fibronectin within the basement membranes of developing or regenerating CNS blood vessels were investigated using two immunocytochemical techniques. Three models of angiogenesis were studied: normal pre- and postnatal development, wound healing, and vascularization of fetal neocortical transplants(More)
BACKGROUND The United Nations Millennium Development Goals look to substantial improvements in child and maternal survival. Morbidity and mortality during pregnancy, delivery and the postnatal period are prime obstacles to achieving these goals. Given the increasing importance of urban health to global prospects, Mumbai's City Initiative for Newborn Health(More)
INTRODUCTION Improving maternal and newborn health in low-income settings requires both health service and community action. Previous community initiatives have been predominantly rural, but India is urbanizing. While working to improve health service quality, we tested an intervention in which urban slum-dweller women's groups worked to improve local(More)
BACKGROUND The cost of maternity care can be a barrier to access that may increase maternal and neonatal mortality risk. We analyzed spending on maternity care in urban slum communities in Mumbai to better understand the equity of spending and the impact of spending on household poverty. METHODS We used expenditure data for maternal and neonatal care,(More)
BACKGROUND Aggregate urban health statistics mask inequalities. We described maternity care in vulnerable slum communities in Mumbai, and examined differences in care and outcomes between more and less deprived groups. METHODS We collected information through a birth surveillance system covering a population of over 280 000 in 48 vulnerable slum(More)
In many cities, healthcare is available through a complex mix of private and public providers. The line between the formal and informal sectors may be blurred and movement between them uncharted. We quantified the use of private and public providers of maternity care in low-income areas of Mumbai, India. We identified births among a population of about 300(More)
BACKGROUND Around 86% of births in Mumbai, India, occur in healthcare institutions, but this aggregate figure hides substantial variation and little is known about urban home births. We aimed to explore factors influencing the choice of home delivery, care practices and costs, and to identify characteristics of women, households and the environment which(More)
Community-based initiatives have become a popular approach to addressing the health needs of underserved populations, in both low- and higher-income countries. This article presents findings from a study of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai. Using qualitative methods(More)
The present study examined the immunocytochemical expression of the blood-brain barrier glucose transporter (GLUT-1) in a series of fetal neocortical transplants, autonomic tissue transplants, and stab wounds to the rat brain. GLUT-1 is one of a family of different glucose transporters and is found exclusively on barrier-type endothelial cells. In the brain(More)