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Prior exposure to a moving grating of high contrast led to a substantial and persistent reduction in the contrast sensitivity of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of macaque. This slow contrast adaptation was potent in all magnocellular (M) cells but essentially absent in parvocellular (P) cells and neurons that received input from S cones.(More)
The response of a neuron in striate cortex to an optimally configured visual stimulus is generally reduced when the stimulus is enlarged to encroach on a suppressive region that surrounds its classical receptive field (CRF). To characterize the mechanism that gives rise to this suppression, we measured its spatiotemporal tuning, its susceptibility to(More)
The mouse is becoming a key species for research on the neural circuits of the early visual system. To relate such circuits to perception, one must measure visually guided behavior and ask how it depends on fundamental stimulus attributes such as visual contrast. Using operant conditioning, we trained mice to detect visual contrast in a two-alternative(More)
Hemodynamic responses in mice and other species are typically measured under anesthesia. However, anesthesia could influence their relationship to neural activity. To investigate this relationship, we used optical imaging in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Hemodynamic responses yielded clear maps of retinotopy in both anesthetized and awake mice. However,(More)
Somatosensory information is critical to balance control and fall prevention in older adults. Recently, it has been shown that low-level input noise (electrical or mechanical) can enhance the sensitivity of the human somatosensory system. In this study, we tested the effect of low-level electrical noise, applied at the knee, on balance control in 13 healthy(More)
We describe experiments that isolate and characterize multiple adaptable mechanisms that influence responses of orientation-selective neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) of anesthetized macaque (Macaca fascicularis). The results suggest that three adaptable stages of machinery shape neural responses in V1: a broadly tuned early stage and a(More)
To provide data for the design of virtual environments and teleoperated systems for surgery, it is necessary to measure tissue properties under both in vivo and ex vivo conditions. The former provides information about tissue behavior in its physiological state, while the latter can provide better control over experimental conditions. We have developed(More)
Older adults often suffer from diminished somatosensation stemming from age-related neuropathy. Recently, localized low-level electrical noise stimulation was shown to enhance tactile sensitivity in healthy young subjects. Here, we hypothesized that fine-touch sensitivity in older adults can be similarly improved. Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments were used to(More)
We characterize a hitherto undocumented type of neuron present in the regions bordering the principal layers of the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus. Neurons of this type were distinguished by a high and unusually regular maintained discharge that was suppressed by spatiotemporal modulation of luminance or chromaticity within the receptive field. The(More)