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Expression of the macrophage mannose receptor is inhibited by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), a T helper type 1 (Th-1)-derived lymphokine. Interleukin 4 (IL-4), a Th-2 lymphocyte product, upregulates major histocompatibility class II antigen expression but inhibits inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages. We have studied the effect of IL-4 on(More)
IFN-gamma-induced nitric oxide (NO) in the murine macrophage-derived cell line RAW 264.7 was previously shown to inhibit replication of the poxviruses ectromelia and vaccinia (VV) and HSV-1. In the current study we demonstrate that murine macrophages activated as a consequence of VV infection express inducible nitric oxide synthase. These activated(More)
Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production in the murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells were previously shown to inhibit the replication of the poxviruses vaccinia virus (VV) and ectromelia virus and herpes simplex virus type 1. In the current study, we performed biochemical analyses to determine the(More)
Enzymes and factors, required for in vitro transcription of templates regulated by vaccinia virus intermediate stage promoters, are present in HeLa cells infected with vaccinia virus in the presence of an inhibitor of DNA replication. Previous studies indicated that in vitro transcription could be reconstituted by adding a partially purified transcription(More)
Cytoplasmic extracts of vaccinia virus-infected HeLa cells blocked in DNA replication were capable of transcribing templates containing the minimal promoter sequences derived from three viral intermediate-stage genes (A1L, A2L, and G8R) but not promoters from early or late genes. One of three isolated components required for transcription copurified with(More)
The presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-binding sites in human breast carcinomas and breast tumor cell lines as well as the demonstration of the inhibitory effects of GnRH analogues on the growth of these cells raised the possibility that GnRH is produced locally by breast tumor cells themselves. Immunoreactive GnRH was shown to be present in(More)
In 2008, the UK National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) made recommendations for safe arterial line management. Following a patient safety incident in our intensive care unit (ICU), we surveyed current practice in arterial line management and determined whether these recommendations had been adopted. We contacted all 241 adult ICUs in the UK; 228 (94.6%)(More)
A functional preinitiation transcription complex was formed by incubating vaccinia virus early transcription factor VETF and RAP94+ RNA polymerase with an early promoter template immobilized on paramagnetic particles. A preferred order of assembly, VETF followed by RNA polymerase, was demonstrated by stepwise addition experiments. ATP was unnecessary for(More)