Nectarios Klonis

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After invading human erythrocytes, the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum, initiates a remarkable process of secreting proteins into the surrounding erythrocyte cytoplasm and plasma membrane. One of these exported proteins, the knob-associated histidine-rich protein (KAHRP), is essential for microvascular sequestration, a strategy whereby infected red(More)
After invading human red blood cells (RBCs) the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remodels the host cell by trafficking proteins to the RBC compartment. The virulence protein P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is responsible for cytoadherence of infected cells to host endothelial receptors. This protein is exported across the(More)
The most deadly of the human malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum, has different stages specialized for invasion of hepatocytes, erythrocytes, and the mosquito gut wall. In each case, host cell invasion is powered by an actin-myosin motor complex that is linked to an inner membrane complex (IMC) via a membrane anchor called the glideosome-associated(More)
Blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum export proteins into their erythrocyte host, thereby inducing extensive host cell modifications that become apparent after the first half of the asexual development cycle (ring stage). This is responsible for a major part of parasite virulence. Export of many parasite proteins depends on a sequence motif termed(More)
Using a stage-specific cDNA library from Plasmodium falciparum we have identified a gene coding for a novel histidine-rich protein (MAHRP-1). The gene is exclusively transcribed during early erythrocyte stages and codes for a small transmembrane protein. The C-terminal region contains a polymorphic stretch of histidine-rich repeats. Fluorescence microscopy(More)
Successful control of falciparum malaria depends greatly on treatment with artemisinin combination therapies. Thus, reports that resistance to artemisinins (ARTs) has emerged, and that the prevalence of this resistance is increasing, are alarming. ART resistance has recently been linked to mutations in the K13 propeller protein. We undertook a detailed(More)
The wide availability of the confocal microscope and the emergence of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transfection technology has led to the increasing use of photobleaching studies to examine aspects of cellular dynamics in living cells. In this review, we examine the theory and practice of performing photobleaching studies using a confocal microscope. We(More)
During intraerythrocytic development, the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, establishes membrane-bound compartments, known as Maurer's clefts, outside the confines of its own plasma membrane. The Maurer's compartments are thought to be a crucial component of the machinery for protein sorting and trafficking; however, their ultrastructure is(More)
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum induces a sixfold increase in the phospholipid content of infected erythrocytes during its intraerythrocytic growth. We have characterized the lipid environments in parasitized erythrocyte using the hydrophobic probe, Nile Red. Spectral imaging with a confocal microscope revealed heterogeneous lipid environments in(More)
Malaria parasites export proteins beyond their own plasma membrane to locations in the red blood cells in which they reside. Maurer's clefts are parasite-derived structures within the host cell cytoplasm that are thought to function as a sorting compartment between the parasite and the erythrocyte membrane. However, the genesis of this compartment and the(More)