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Pediatric neuroimaging studies 1–5 , up to now exclusively cross sectional , identify linear decreases in cortical gray matter and increases in white matter across ages 4 to 20. In this large-scale longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging study, we confirmed linear increases in white matter, but demonstrated nonlinear changes in cortical gray matter, with a(More)
CONTEXT Various anatomic brain abnormalities have been reported for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with varying methods, small samples, cross-sectional designs, and without accounting for stimulant drug exposure. OBJECTIVE To compare regional brain volumes at initial scan and their change over time in medicated and previously unmedicated(More)
1. Interest in the morphologic development of the corpus callosum (CC) during childhood and adolescence stems from adolescent changes in cognitive functions subserved by the CC, reports of CC anomalies for a wide variety of childhood neuropsychiatric illnesses, and controversy regarding sexual dimorphism. 2. Characterization of the normal developmental(More)
BACKGROUND Adolescence provides a window to examine regional and disease-specific late abnormal brain development in schizophrenia. Because previous data showed progressive brain ventricular enlargement for a group of adolescents with childhood-onset schizophrenia at 2-year follow-up, with no significant changes for healthy controls, we hypothesized that(More)
T1 black holes (BHs) on MRIs may represent either areas of oedema or axonal loss in patients with multiple sclerosis. BHs begin as contrast enhancing lesions (CELs) and evolve differently from patient to patient, and within the same patient over time. We analysed BHs formation over a 4-year period. Forty-eight monthly MRIs of nine non-treated multiple(More)
BACKGROUND Previous NIMH childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) anatomic brain MRI studies found progression of ventricular volume and other structural brain anomalies at 2-year follow up across mean ages 14 to 16 years. However, studies in adult patients generally do not show progression of ventricular volume or correlation of ventricular volume with duration(More)
BACKGROUND Whereas recent data from imaging studies challenge the prevailing notion that multiple sclerosis (MS) is purely an inflammatory disease, pathologic studies suggest differences in the disease processes between individual patients with MS. The ability to dissect the pathophysiologic disease heterogeneity, if it indeed exists, by methodologies that(More)
BACKGROUND Direct brain biopsy is rarely indicated during acute stroke. This study uses peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to determine whether a systemic gene expression profile could be demonstrated in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we compared the gene expression profile of an index(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous reports have documented a striking progressive reduction in cortical gray matter volume during adolescence in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia. This study examined the rate of loss in cortical gray matter volume in relation to age and clinical status in adolescent patients over a follow-up period of 2-6 years. METHOD A total(More)