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BACKGROUND The management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is controversial. Investigators from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms aimed to assess the natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms and to measure the risk associated with their repair. METHODS Centres in the USA, Canada, and Europe enrolled patients for(More)
SUMMARY Cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is one of the most important causes of cerebral ischemia, and is the leading cause of death and disability after aneurysm rupture. There are two definitions of cerebral vasospasm: angiographic and clinical. Care must be exercised to be certain that it is clear which entity is being(More)
We present a survey of design issues for developing effective free-space three-dimensional (3D) user interfaces. Our survey is based upon previous work in 3D interaction, our experience in developing free-space interfaces, and our informal observations of test users. We illustrate our design issues using examples drawn from instances of 3D interfaces. For(More)
Cerebral vasospasm is a common, formidable, and potentially devastating complication in patients who have sustained subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Despite intensive research efforts, cerebral vasospasm remains incompletely understood from both the pathogenic and therapeutic perspectives. At present, no consistently efficacious and ubiquitously applied(More)
We report results from a formal user study of interactive 3D rotation using the mouse-driven Virtual Sphere and Arcball techniques, as well as multidimensional input techniques based on magnetic orientation sensors. Multidimensional input is often assumed to allow users to work quickly, but at the cost of precision, due to the instability of the hand moving(More)
Ischemia-induced elevation of intracellular calcium triggers a cascade of events which is considered to play a major role in neuronal death. One candidate to participate in this process is the calcium-sensitive protease, calpain. This protease is activated by calcium, and is capable of degrading critical cytoskeletal and regulatory proteins. In order to(More)
The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery evaluated the results of surgical and medical management in 3521 patients between December, 1980, and July, 1983. At admission, 75% of patients were in good neurological condition and surgery was performed in 83%. At the 6-month evaluation, 26% of the patients had died and 58% exhibited a(More)
A prospective, observational clinical trial was conducted by the International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery to determine the best time in relation to the hemorrhage for surgical treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Sixty-eight centers contributed 3521 patients in a 2 1/2-year period beginning in December, 1980. Analysis by a(More)
BACKGROUND Clazosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, significantly and dose-dependently reduced angiographic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). We investigated whether clazosentan reduced vasospasm-related morbidity and all-cause mortality. METHODS In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, we(More)