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Eighty published studies were appraised to document the potential stress associated with three routine laboratory procedures commonly performed on animals: handling, blood collection, and orogastric gavage. We defined handling as any non-invasive manipulation occurring as part of routine husbandry, including lifting an animal and cleaning or moving an(More)
OBJECTIVE Numerous nutrition policy statements recommend the consumption of 800 to 1500 mg of calcium largely from dairy products for osteoporosis prevention; however, the findings of epidemiologic and prospective studies have raised questions about the efficacy of the use of dairy products for the promotion of bone health. The objective of this study was(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether a multicomponent nutrition intervention program at a corporate site reduces body weight and improves other cardiovascular risk factors in overweight individuals. DESIGN Prospective clinical intervention study. SUBJECTS/SETTING Employees of the Government Employees Insurance Company (GEICO) (N = 113), aged 21 to 65 years,(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether a worksite nutrition programme using a low-fat vegan diet could significantly improve nutritional intake. DESIGN At two corporate sites of the Government Employees Insurance Company, employees who were either overweight (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2) and/or had type 2 diabetes participated in a 22-week worksite-based dietary(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To assess the effects on macro- and micronutrient intake of a nutrition intervention program in corporate settings across the United States. SUBJECTS/METHODS Two hundred and ninety-two individuals who were overweight or had type 2 diabetes were recruited from 10 sites of a US insurance company. Two hundred and seventy-one(More)
Research on the role of dietary factors in breast cancer causation has focused predominantly on fat intake. While some studies have examined associations between breast cancer rates and consumption of whole milk, there has been less attention given to dairy products in general. Dairy products contain both hormones and growth factors, in addition to fat and(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to investigate whether a low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 99) were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the nutrient intake of overweight postmenopausal women assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a Step II diet. METHODS Fifty-nine overweight (body mass index, 26 to 44 kg/m2) postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a self-selected low-fat vegan or a National Cholesterol Education Program Step II diet in a 14-wk(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that a low-fat, vegetarian diet reduces dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms by its effect on serum sex-hormone binding globulin concentration and estrogen activity. METHODS In a crossover design, 33 women followed a low-fat, vegetarian diet for two menstrual cycles. For two additional cycles, they followed their(More)
BACKGROUND Although therapeutic diets are critical to diabetes management, their acceptability to patients is largely unstudied. OBJECTIVE To quantify adherence and acceptability for two types of diets for diabetes. DESIGN Controlled trial conducted between 2004 and 2006. SUBJECTS/SETTING Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n=99) at a community-based(More)