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Stress is implicated in diverse psychiatric disorders including substance abuse. The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is a major stress response system that is also a point of intersection between stress neuromediators and endogenous opioids and so may be a site at which stress can influence drug-taking behaviors. As social stress is a common(More)
The parabrachial nucleus (PBN) is an area of the brain stem that controls eating and contains endogenous opioids and their receptors. Previously, we demonstrated that acute activation of mu opioid receptors (MOPR) in the lateral PBN increased food consumption. MOPRs have been divided operationally into mu(1) and mu(2) receptor subtypes on the basis of the(More)
Stress is implicated in psychopathology characterized by cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive responses to stress are regulated by the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. As social stress is a prevalent human stressor, this study determined the impact of repeated social stress on the relationship between LC neuronal activity and behavior during the(More)
The mechanisms and sites of action of epibatidine-induced antinociception and side effects are poorly understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that the locus coeruleus is a site of action of epibatidine. Behavioral responses of rats to hindpaw formalin injection were compared after direct administration of epibatidine into the locus coeruleus(More)
The mechanisms and sites of action of epibatidine-induced antinociception and side effects are poorly understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus is a site of action of epibatidine. Behavioral responses of rats to hindpaw formalin injection were compared after direct administration of epibatidine into the(More)
Classically, opioids produce their effects by activating Gi-proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity. Previous studies proposed that mu-opioid receptors can also stimulate adenylate cyclase due to an initial transient coupling to Gs-proteins. Treatment with ultra-low doses of the nonselective opioid antagonist (-)-naloxone or its inactive enantiomer(More)
We evaluated the electrophysiologic response of locus coeruleus neurons to the systemic and local infusion of epibatidine. Rats were anesthetized with 2% halothane and single-unit locus coeruleus discharge was recorded after administration of systemic (2.5, 5 and 10 microg/kg subcutaneously) and intracoerulear (0.03-0.01-0.001 microg) epibatidine. The(More)
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