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O-antigen modification (serotype conversion) in Shigella flexneri, which is an important virulence determinant, is conferred by temperate bacteriophages. Several serotype-converting phages have been isolated and preliminary characterization has identified the genes involved in O-antigen modification, and has also provided insight into the molecular biology(More)
Miltefosine causes leishmanial death, but the possible mechanism(s) of action is not known. The mode of action of miltefosine was investigated in vitro in Leishmania donovani promastigotes as well as in extra- and intracellular amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that miltefosine induces apoptosis-like death in L. donovani based on observed phenomena such as(More)
Attenuated strains of Salmonella have been used as vaccines to deliver heterologous antigens mainly to generate a humoral immune response. However, little is known about their ability to induce a cell-mediated immune response to the T-cell epitopes of another infectious agent or how optimally to deliver these epitopes to the host immune system. In order to(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily known to regulate adipocyte differentiation. However, its role in skeletal muscle differentiation is not known. To investigate possible involvement of PPARγ in skeletal muscle differentiation, we modulated its expression in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells(More)
BACKGROUND Nanomaterials such as SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2NP) are finding increasing applications in the biomedical and biotechnological fields such as disease diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery, food, cosmetics and biosensors development. Thus, a mechanistic and systematic evaluation of the potential biological and toxic effects of SiO2NP becomes crucial(More)
Salmonella group A, group B, and group D strains have paratose, abequose, and tyvelose, respectively, as the immunodominant sugar in their O antigens, which are otherwise identical; only the final steps differ in the biosynthetic pathways of these sugars. The gene rfbJ from a group B strain, encoding abequose synthase, the final and only unique step in the(More)
AIM Rapidly expanding manufacture and use of nanomaterials emphasize the requirements for thorough assessment of health outcomes associated with novel applications. Post-translational protein modifications catalyzed by Ca(2+)-dependent peptidylargininedeiminases have been shown to trigger immune responses including autoantibody generation, a hallmark of(More)
Previous studies have shown that Shigella flexneri bacteriophage X (SfX) encodes a glucosyltransferase (GtrX, formerly Gtr), which is involved in O antigen modification (serotype Y to serotype X). However, GtrX alone can only mediate a partial conversion. More recently, a three-gene cluster has been identified next to the attachment site in the genome of(More)
The genes encoding type IV O antigen glucosylation were characterized from both Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. The putative O antigen modification genes from E. coli, o120 o306 o443, were PCR-amplified and introduced into S. flexneri serotype Y strain SFL124. Immunogold labelling and phage sensitivity indicated the presence of both serotype Y and(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) expression is very low in skeletal muscle cells, which is one of the most important target tissues for insulin and plays a predominant role in glucose homeostasis. It has recently been shown that muscle-specific PPAR-gamma deletion in mouse causes insulin resistance. However, it is likely that(More)