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Glutamate transporters from the central nervous system play a crucial role in the clearance of the transmitter from the synaptic cleft. Glutamate is cotransported with sodium ions, and the electrogenic translocation cycle is completed by countertransport of potassium. Mutants that cannot interact with potassium are only capable of catalyzing electroneutral(More)
Binding to the CD4 receptor induces conformational changes in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. These changes allow gp120 to bind the coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4, and prime the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein to mediate virus-cell membrane fusion and virus entry. Soluble forms of CD4 (sCD4) and(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) interaction with the primary receptor, CD4, induces conformational changes in the viral envelope glycoproteins that allow binding to the CCR5 second receptor and virus entry into the host cell. The small molecule NBD-556 mimics CD4 by binding the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein, moderately inhibiting virus entry(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) enters cells following sequential activation of the high-potential-energy viral envelope glycoprotein trimer by target cell CD4 and coreceptor. HIV-1 variants differ in their requirements for CD4; viruses that can infect coreceptor-expressing cells that lack CD4 have been generated in the laboratory. These(More)
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Historical analyses of the cultural impact of infectious diseases are quite popular, as demonstrated by the success of Jared Diamond's book Guns, Germs, and Steel [1]. Assessing the impact of culture on epidemics, however, should not be(More)
BACKGROUND The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) into host cells involves the interaction of the viral exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and receptors on the target cell. The HIV-1 receptors are CD4 and one of two chemokine receptors, CCR5 or CXCR4. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We created proteoliposomes that contain CD4, the primary(More)
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