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The Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort study has been initiated in North Carolina and Iowa. The objectives of this study are to: 1) identify and quantify cancer risks among men, women, whites, and minorities associated with direct exposure to pesticides and other agricultural agents; 2) evaluate noncancer health risks including(More)
Too many reports of associations between genetic variants and common cancer sites and other complex diseases are false positives. A major reason for this unfortunate situation is the strategy of declaring statistical significance based on a P value alone, particularly, any P value below.05. The false positive report probability (FPRP), the probability of no(More)
BACKGROUND The steady worldwide increase in the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma during the past few decades remains mostly unexplained. Several studies suggest that there may be an association between the agricultural use of the organochlorine 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2'bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We have(More)
Benzene is known to have toxic effects on the blood and bone marrow, but its impact at levels below the U.S. occupational standard of 1 part per million (ppm) remains uncertain. In a study of 250 workers exposed to benzene, white blood cell and platelet counts were significantly lower than in 140 controls, even for exposure below 1 ppm in air. Progenitor(More)
Benzene is a ubiquitous occupational hematotoxin and leukemogen, but people vary in their response to this toxic agent. To evaluate the impact of interindividual variation in enzymes that activate (i.e., CYP2E1) and detoxify (i.e., NQO1) benzene and its metabolites, we carried out a case-control study in Shanghai, China, of occupational benzene poisoning(More)
Two of the most common cytogenetic changes in therapy- and chemical-related leukemia are the loss and long (q) arm deletion of chromosomes 5 and 7. The detection of these aberrations in lymphocytes of individuals exposed to potential leukemogens may serve as useful biomarkers of increased leukemia risk. We have used a novel fluorescence in situ(More)
OBJECTIVES Animal inhalation studies and theoretical models suggest that the pattern of formation of benzene metabolites changes as exposure to benzene increases. To determine if this occurs in humans, benzene metabolites in urine samples collected as part of a cross sectional study of occupationally exposed workers in Shanghai, China were measured. (More)
BACKGROUND Many reported associations between common genetic polymorphisms and complex diseases have not been confirmed in subsequent studies. An exception could be the association between NAT2 slow acetylation, GSTM1 null genotype, and bladder-cancer risk. However, current evidence is based on meta-analyses of relatively small studies (range 23-374 cases)(More)
Benzene is a well-established hematotoxin. However, reports of its effects on specific blood cells have been somewhat inconsistent and the relative toxicity of benzene metabolites on peripheral blood cells in humans has not been evaluated. We compared hematologic outcomes in a cross-sectional study of 44 workers heavily exposed to benzene (median: 31 parts(More)
There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing, and other industries. Epidemiologic studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of(More)