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The Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort study has been initiated in North Carolina and Iowa. The objectives of this study are to: 1) identify and quantify cancer risks among men, women, whites, and minorities associated with direct exposure to pesticides and other agricultural agents; 2) evaluate noncancer health risks including(More)
BACKGROUND The steady worldwide increase in the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma during the past few decades remains mostly unexplained. Several studies suggest that there may be an association between the agricultural use of the organochlorine 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2'bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We have(More)
Benzene is known to have toxic effects on the blood and bone marrow, but its impact at levels below the U.S. occupational standard of 1 part per million (ppm) remains uncertain. In a study of 250 workers exposed to benzene, white blood cell and platelet counts were significantly lower than in 140 controls, even for exposure below 1 ppm in air. Progenitor(More)
Benzene is a ubiquitous occupational hematotoxin and leukemogen, but people vary in their response to this toxic agent. To evaluate the impact of interindividual variation in enzymes that activate (i.e., CYP2E1) and detoxify (i.e., NQO1) benzene and its metabolites, we carried out a case-control study in Shanghai, China, of occupational benzene poisoning(More)
Two of the most common cytogenetic changes in therapy- and chemical-related leukemia are the loss and long (q) arm deletion of chromosomes 5 and 7. The detection of these aberrations in lymphocytes of individuals exposed to potential leukemogens may serve as useful biomarkers of increased leukemia risk. We have used a novel fluorescence in situ(More)
Benzene is a well-established hematotoxin. However, reports of its effects on specific blood cells have been somewhat inconsistent and the relative toxicity of benzene metabolites on peripheral blood cells in humans has not been evaluated. We compared hematologic outcomes in a cross-sectional study of 44 workers heavily exposed to benzene (median: 31 parts(More)
Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been used for many years to monitor human populations exposed to potential carcinogens. Recent reports have confirmed the validity of this approach by demonstrating that elevated levels of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes are associated with subsequent increased cancer risk, especially for(More)
BACKGROUND Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the exposure-response relationship between diesel exhaust and lung(More)
OBJECTIVES Animal inhalation studies and theoretical models suggest that the pattern of formation of benzene metabolites changes as exposure to benzene increases. To determine if this occurs in humans, benzene metabolites in urine samples collected as part of a cross sectional study of occupationally exposed workers in Shanghai, China were measured. (More)
Although the toxicity of benzene has been linked to its metabolism, the dose-related production of metabolites is not well understood in humans, particularly at low levels of exposure. We investigated unmetabolized benzene in urine (UBz) and all major urinary metabolites [phenol (PH), E,E-muconic acid (MA), hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CA)] as well as(More)