Nathaniel Milton

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The objective of this study was to evaluate manometric temperature measurement as a non-invasive method of monitoring product temperature during the primary drying phase of lyophilization. This method is based on analysis of the transient response of the chamber pressure when the flow of water vapor from the chamber to the condenser is momentarily(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of the study is to characterize glycine crystallization during freezing of aqueous solutions as a function of the glycine salt form (i.e., neutral glycine, glycine hydrochloride, and sodium glycinate), pH, and ionic strength. METHODS Crystallization was studied by thermal analysis, microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and pulsed Fourier(More)
We report thermal and crystallographic evidence for a previously unknown mannitol hydrate that is formed in the process of freeze-drying. The mannitol hydrate was produced by freeze-drying pure mannitol solutions (1-4% w/v) using the following cycle: (1) equilibration at -5 degreesC for 1 h; (2) freezing at -40 degreesC; (3) primary drying at -10 degreesC(More)
A case study is presented in which a tert-butanol (TBA)/water cosolvent system was found to be a useful means of producing freeze-dried tobramycin sulfate that readily forms a loose powder upon agitation in a specialized application in which a critical quality attribute is the ability to pour the sterile powder from the vial. Both formulation and processing(More)
Using five independent analytic and Monte Carlo simulation codes, we have studied the performance of wide field ground layer adaptive optics (GLAO), which uses a single, relatively low order deformable mirror to correct the wavefront errors from the lowest altitude turbulence. GLAO concentrates more light from a point source in a smaller area on the science(More)
Adaptive optics to correct current telescopes over wide fields, or future very large telescopes over even narrow fields, will require real-time wavefront measurements made with a constellation of laser beacons. Here we report the first such measurements, made at the 6.5 m MMT with five Rayleigh beacons in a 2 ′ pentagon. Each beacon is made with a pulsed(More)
We describe results from the first multi-laser wavefront sensing system designed to support tomographic modes of adaptive optics (AO). The system, now operating at the 6.5 m MMT telescope in Arizona, creates five beacons by Rayleigh scattering of laser beams at 532 nm integrated over a range from 20 to 29 km by dynamic refocus of the telescope optics. The(More)
We investigate the performance of a general multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) system in which signals from multiple reference beacons are used to drive several deformable mirrors in the optical beam train. Taking an analytic approach that yields a detailed view of the effects of low-order aberration modes defined over the metapupil, we show that in the(More)
We describe results from the first astronomical adaptive optics system to use multiple laser guide stars, located at the 6.5-m MMT telescope in Arizona. Its initial operational mode, ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO), provides uniform stellar wavefront correction within the 2 arc minute diameter laser beacon constellation , reducing the stellar image(More)
The MMT's five Rayleigh laser guide star system has successfully demonstrated open loop wavefront sensing for both ground-layer and laser tomography adaptive optics (AO). Closed loop correction is expected for the first time in the autumn of 2006. The program is moving into its second phase: construction of a permanent facility to feed AO instruments now(More)