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Haemoglobin C, which carries a glutamate-to-lysine mutation in the beta-globin chain, protects West African children against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Mechanisms of protection are not established for the heterozygous (haemoglobin AC) or homozygous (haemoglobin CC) states. Here we report a marked effect of haemoglobin C on the cell-surface properties of(More)
RATIONALE Novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines should be safe and effective in populations infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and/or HIV for effective TB control. OBJECTIVE To determine the safety and immunogenicity of MVA85A, a novel TB vaccine, among M.tb- and/or HIV-infected persons in a setting where TB and HIV are endemic. METHODS An(More)
BACKGROUND In Africa, infant susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria increases substantially as fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and maternal immune IgG disappear from circulation. During the first few months of life, however, resistance to malaria is evidenced by extremely low parasitemias, the absence of fever, and the almost complete lack of severe(More)
BACKGROUND BCG, the only licensed tuberculosis vaccine, affords poor protection against lung tuberculosis in infants and children. A new tuberculosis vaccine, which may enhance the BCG-induced immune response, is urgently needed. We assessed the safety of and characterized the T cell response induced by 3 doses of the candidate vaccine, MVA85A, in(More)
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