Nathan Thomas Zwagerman

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OBJECT Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a therapeutic option for repeatedly hemorrhagic cavernous malformations (CMs) located in areas deemed to be high risk for resection. During the latency period of 2 or more years after SRS, recurrent hemorrhage remains a persistent risk until the obliterative process has finished. The pathological response to SRS has(More)
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Children with defects in the AADC gene show compromised development, particularly in motor function. Drug therapy has only marginal effects on some of the symptoms and does not change early childhood mortality. Here, we performed(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether cerebral inflammation in ischemic rats was reduced by a neuroprotective action of pre-ischemic tumor necrosis factor-alpha up-regulation, which down-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were(More)
OBJECTIVES As part of the innate immune system, activation of Toll-like receptor-4 by inflammatory mediators causes the release of inflammatory cytokines, leading to cellular damage. Exercise for 3 weeks has been shown to provide neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion insults by decreasing inflammation. This study explores the expression of Toll-like(More)
INTRODUCTION The neuroprotective nature of exercise has been well established and the mechanisms of this protection are still a subject of much research. This study aims to determine if cerebral blood flow is constituently higher during the ischemia or reperfusion events in stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly(More)
Physical exercise preconditioning is known to ameliorate stroke-induced injury. In addition to several other mechanisms, the beneficial effect of preischemic exercise following stroke is due to an upregulated capacity to maintain energy supplies. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in exercise and control groups. After 1-3 weeks of exercise, several(More)
External ventricular drain (EVD) placement is often a routine but lifesaving neurosurgical procedure performed throughout the world. Misadventures involving the procedure are well documented throughout the literature. However, we present a unique case of middle meningeal artery pseudoaneurysm formation after EVD placement not before described and provide a(More)