Nathan Thomas Zwagerman

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Physical exercise preconditioning is known to ameliorate stroke-induced injury. In addition to several other mechanisms, the beneficial effect of preischemic exercise following stroke is due to an upregulated capacity to maintain energy supplies. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in exercise and control groups. After 1-3 weeks of exercise, several(More)
The development of Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) after cranial irradiation for pediatric tumors has been well established. However, information on the development of MMS after proton beam radiotherapy is sparse. We present the case of a 2-year-old child who developed radiation-induced MMS after treatment with proton beam therapy.
OBJECT Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a therapeutic option for repeatedly hemorrhagic cavernous malformations (CMs) located in areas deemed to be high risk for resection. During the latency period of 2 or more years after SRS, recurrent hemorrhage remains a persistent risk until the obliterative process has finished. The pathological response to SRS has(More)
BACKGROUND Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) are rare and potentially devastating. First-line management involves intravenous antibiotics, with surgical or endovascular management reserved for cases of failed medical treatment or aneurysmal rupture. Endovascular therapy has become the primary approach for treating these small, distally located(More)
OBJECTIVES As part of the innate immune system, activation of Toll-like receptor-4 by inflammatory mediators causes the release of inflammatory cytokines, leading to cellular damage. Exercise for 3 weeks has been shown to provide neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion insults by decreasing inflammation. This study explores the expression of Toll-like(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether cerebral inflammation in ischemic rats was reduced by a neuroprotective action of pre-ischemic tumor necrosis factor-alpha up-regulation, which down-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were(More)
INTRODUCTION The neuroprotective nature of exercise has been well established and the mechanisms of this protection are still a subject of much research. This study aims to determine if cerebral blood flow is constituently higher during the ischemia or reperfusion events in stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly(More)
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a condition that may severely reduce patients' quality of life. We sought to determine the sensitivity and specificity of thin-slice T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting vascular compression in HFS patients. Prospective information was collected on 28 patients with HFS who presented to our center between March 2011 and(More)
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Children with defects in the AADC gene show compromised development, particularly in motor function. Drug therapy has only marginal effects on some of the symptoms and does not change early childhood mortality. Here, we performed(More)
The complication rates of carotid artery stenting (CAS) vary from 3.0% to 4.4%, and most commonly include ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, or groin complications. We present the rare complication of a patient who underwent CAS for a symptomatic 90% left internal carotid artery stenosis and developed an expanding cervical hematoma after the(More)