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Global energy consumption is projected to increase, even in the face of substantial declines in energy intensity, at least 2-fold by midcentury relative to the present because of population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of CO(2) emissions in the(More)
At present, solar energy conversion technologies face cost and scalability hurdles in the technologies required for a complete energy system. To provide a truly widespread primary energy source, solar energy must be captured, converted, and stored in a cost-effective fashion. New developments in nanotechnology, biotechnology, and the materials and physical(More)
Si wire arrays are a promising architecture for solar-energy-harvesting applications, and may offer a mechanically flexible alternative to Si wafers for photovoltaics. To achieve competitive conversion efficiencies, the wires must absorb sunlight over a broad range of wavelengths and incidence angles, despite occupying only a modest fraction of the array's(More)
We describe a method for generating a variety of chemically diverse broadly responsive low-power vapor sensors. The chemical polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of plasticizers has yielded conducting organic polymer films whose resistivities are sensitive to the identity and concentration of various vapors in air. An array of such sensing elements(More)
The dependence of electron-transfer rate constants on the driving force for interfacial charge transfer has been investigated using n-type ZnO electrodes in aqueous solutions. Differential capacitance versus potential and current density versus potential measurements were used to determine the energetics and kinetics, respectively, of the interfacial(More)
Although semiconductors such as silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and gallium phosphide (GaP) have band gaps that make them efficient photoanodes for solar fuel production, these materials are unstable in aqueous media. We show that TiO2 coatings (4 to 143 nanometers thick) grown by atomic layer deposition prevent corrosion, have electronic defects(More)