Nathan P Croft

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gamma 1-Herpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have a unique ability to amplify virus loads in vivo through latent growth-transforming infection. Whether they, like alpha- and beta-herpesviruses, have been driven to actively evade immune detection of replicative (lytic) infection remains a moot point. We were prompted to readdress this question by(More)
The gamma-herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists for life in infected individuals despite the presence of a strong immune response. During the lytic cycle of EBV many viral proteins are expressed, potentially allowing virally infected cells to be recognized and eliminated by CD8+ T cells. We have recently identified an immune evasion protein encoded(More)
We describe a cell-free approach that employs selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantitate T-cell epitopes. This approach utilises multiple epitope-specific SRM transitions to identify known T-cell epitopes and an absolute quantitation (AQUA) peptide strategy to afford AQUA. The advantage of a mass(More)
EBV persists for life in the human host while facing vigorous antiviral responses that are induced upon primary infection. This persistence supports the idea that herpesviruses have acquired dedicated functions to avoid immune elimination. The recently identified EBV gene product BNLF2a blocks TAP. As a result, reduced amounts of peptides are transported by(More)
Current knowledge about the dynamics of antigen presentation to T cells during viral infection is very poor despite being of fundamental importance to our understanding of anti-viral immunity. Here we use an advanced mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify the presentation of eight vaccinia virus peptide-MHC complexes (epitopes) on infected(More)
With recent advances in the design and delivery of peptide-based therapeutics there has been a growing interest on the use of peptides in vaccine design. Moreover, functional dissection and proteomic analysis of the immunogenic epitopes of proteins from pathogenic micro-organisms, cancers and self-tissues targeted by autoimmune responses, have broadened the(More)
Class I HLAs generally present peptides of 8-10 aa in length, although it is unclear whether peptide length preferences are affected by HLA polymorphism. In this study, we investigated the CD8(+) T cell response to the BZLF1 Ag of EBV, which includes overlapping sequences of different size that nevertheless conform to the binding motif of the large and(More)
The human B lymphoblastoid cell line C1R is widely regarded as human leukocyte antigen-A (HLA-A)/HLA-B negative and is therefore frequently exploited as a recipient cell line to study HLA class I functions. However, the normal levels of HLA-C*04:01 often hamper the investigation of introduced HLA class I allomorphs, which is particularly evident in(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disorder characterized by the infiltration of auto-reactive immune cells from the periphery into the central nervous system resulting in axonal injury and neuronal cell death. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis represents the best characterized animal model as common clinical, histological, and(More)
Peptide vaccines represent a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of pathogenic diseases, cancers and autoimmune disorders; their low cost, ease of synthesis and inherent safety are all attractive features. However, they have remained largely unsuccessful owing to low immunogenicity, predominantly stemming from reduced bioavailability due to(More)