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Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia(More)
The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained(More)
Whole-genome duplication (WGD) results in new genomic resources that can be exploited by evolution for rewiring genetic regulatory networks in organisms. In metazoans, WGD occurred before the last common ancestor of vertebrates, and has been postulated as a major evolutionary force that contributed to their speciation and diversification of morphological(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that act post-transcriptionally to regulate gene expression levels. Some studies have indicated that microRNAs may have low homoplasy, and as a consequence the phylogenetic distribution of microRNA families has been used to study animal evolutionary relationships. Limited levels of lineage sampling, however, may(More)
Directional left/right (LR) asymmetries, in which there are consistent, heritable differences in morphology between the left and right sides of bilaterally symmetrical organisms, are found in animals across the Bilateria. For many years, we have lacked evidence for shared mechanisms underlying their development. This led to the supposition that the(More)
Although the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH) and the steroidal ecdysteroids are of vital importance to the development and reproduction of insects, our understanding of the evolution of these crucial hormonal regulators in other arthropods is limited. To better understand arthropod hormone evolution and regulation, here we describe the hormonal(More)
A key early step in embryogenesis is the establishment of the major body axes; the dorsal-ventral (DV) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes. Determination of these axes in some insects requires the function of different sets of signalling pathways for each axis. Patterning across the DV axis requires interaction between the Toll and Dpp/TGF-β pathways, whereas(More)
As the last few decades of work has shown, precise regulation of biosynthesis and release of arthropod hormones is essential to cope with environmental stresses and challenges. In crustaceans and insects, the sesquiterpenoids methyl farnesoate (MF), farnesoic acid (FA) and juvenile hormone (JH) regulate many developmental, physiological, and reproductive(More)
Since the discovery that the TGF-β signalling molecule Nodal and its downstream effector Pitx have a parallel role in establishing asymmetry between molluscs and deuterostomes the debate over the degree to which this signalling pathway is conserved across the Bilateria as a whole has been ongoing. Further taxon sampling is critical to understand the(More)
TGF-β signalling plays a key role in the patterning of metazoan body plans and growth. It is widely regarded as a 'module' capable of co-option into novel functions. The TGF-β pathway arose in the Metazoan lineage, and while it is generally regarded as well conserved across evolutionary time, its components have been largely studied in the Ecdysozoa and(More)