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BACKGROUND The presence of the tetraspanins CD9, CD63, CD81 and CD82 at HIV-1 budding sites, at the virological synapse (VS), and their enrichment in HIV-1 virions has been well-documented, but it remained unclear if these proteins play a role in the late phase of the viral replication cycle. Here we used overexpression and knockdown approaches to address(More)
Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The pathology of amebiasis is still poorly understood, which can be largely attributed to lack of molecular tools. Here we present the optimization of SNAP-tag technology via codon optimization specific for E. histolytica. The resultant SNAP(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission takes place primarily through cell-cell contacts known as virological synapses. Formation of these transient adhesions between infected and uninfected cells can lead to transmission of viral particles followed by separation of the cells. Alternatively, the cells can fuse, thus forming a syncytium.(More)
HIV-1 Env mediates fusion of viral and target cell membranes, but it can also mediate fusion of infected (producer) and target cells, thus triggering the formation of multinucleated cells, so-called syncytia. Large, round, immobile syncytia are readily observable in cultures of HIV-1-infected T cells, but these fast growing "fusion sinks" are largely(More)
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