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For many pathogenic bacteria surface attachment is a required first step during host interactions. Attachment can proceed to invasion of host tissue or cells or to establishment of a multicellular bacterial community known as a biofilm. The transition from a unicellular, often motile, state to a sessile, multicellular, biofilm-associated state is one of the(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Epidural anesthesia decreases the risk of postoperative deep venous thrombosis in selected patients. Intravascular local anesthetic levels resulting from epidural anesthesia may contribute to this effect by impacting coagulation. We studied the effects of bupivacaine (1-10 micromol/L) on whole blood coagulation measured by(More)
UNLABELLED The motile-to-sessile transition is an important lifestyle switch in diverse bacteria and is often regulated by the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP). In general, high c-di-GMP concentrations promote attachment to surfaces, whereas cells with low levels of signal remain motile. In the plant pathogen(More)
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