Nathan E Fishkin

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A substantial portion of the lipofuscin that accumulates with age and in some retinal disorders in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, forms as a consequence of light-related vitamin A recycling. Major constituents of RPE lipofuscin are the di-retinal conjugate A2E and its photoisomers. That the accretion of A2E has consequences for the cell, with the(More)
Glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid, type A (GABA(A)) receptors are members of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily that mediate inhibitory synaptic transmission in the adult central nervous system. During development, the activation of these receptors leads to membrane depolarization. Ligands for the two receptors have important implications both in(More)
Several lines of investigation suggest that the nondegradable fluorophores that accumulate as lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells contribute to the etiology of macular degeneration. Despite evidence that much of this fluorescent material may originate as inadvertent products of the retinoid cycle, the enzymatic pathway by which the(More)
A2E and iso-A2E are fluorescent amphiphilic pyridinium bisretinoids involved in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is now shown that the presence of high exogenous concentrations of all-trans-retinal in photoreceptor outer segments leads to the formation of A2-rhodopsin (A2-Rh), an unprecedented fluorescent rhodopsin adduct which consists of(More)
We have examined questions related to the biosynthesis of A2E, a fluorophore that accumulates in retinal pigment epithelial cells with aging and in some retinal disorders. The use of in vitro preparations revealed that detectable levels of A2-PE, the A2E precursor, are formed within photoreceptor outer segments following light-induced release of endogenous(More)
The bis-retinoid pigments that accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial cells as lipofuscin are associated with inherited and age-related retinal disease. In addition to A2E and related cis isomers, we previously showed that condensation of two molecules of all-trans-retinal leads to the formation of a protonated Schiff base conjugate, all-trans-retinal(More)
To gain information on the conformation of the 11-cis-retinylidene chromophore bound to bovine opsin, the enantiomeric pair (2a and 2b) of 11-cis-locked bicyclo[5.1.0]octyl retinal (retCPr) 2 was prepared and its conformation was investigated by NMR, geometry optimization, and CD calculations. This compound is also of interest since it contains a unique(More)
The visual pigment rhodopsin (bovine) is a 40 kDa protein consisting of 348 amino acids, and is a prototypical member of the subfamily A of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This remarkably efficient light-activated protein (quantum yield = 0.67) binds the chromophore 11-cis-retinal covalently by attachment to Lys296 through a protonated Schiff base. The(More)
Bisretinoid adducts accumulate as lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of the eye and are implicated in the pathology of inherited and age-related macular degeneration. Characterization of the bisretinoids A2E and the all-trans-retinal dimer series has shown that these pigments form from reactions in photoreceptor cell outer segments that(More)
A novel pathway for ex vivo maytansinoid release from thioether linked antibody maytansinoid conjugates (AMCs) upon incubation in human plasma has been identified. A thioether succinimide-linked AMC can undergo chemical oxidation followed by sulfoxide elimination under mild aqueous conditions (pH 5.5-7.5, 37 °C). Oxidized thioether-linked AMCs exhibit high,(More)