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Fear memories guide adaptive behavior in contexts associated with aversive events. The hippocampus forms a neural representation of the context that predicts aversive events. Representations of context incorporate multisensory features of the environment, but must somehow exclude sensory features of the aversive event itself. We investigated this(More)
Adult-born granule cells (abGCs) have been implicated in cognition and mood; however, it remains unknown how these cells behave in vivo. Here, we have used two-photon calcium imaging to monitor the activity of young abGCs in awake behaving mice. We find that young adult-born neurons fire at a higher rate in vivo but paradoxically exhibit less spatial tuning(More)
Impaired consciousness requires altered cortical function. This can occur either directly from disorders that impair widespread bilateral regions of the cortex or indirectly through effects on subcortical arousal systems. It has therefore long been puzzling why focal temporal lobe seizures so often impair consciousness. Early work suggested that altered(More)
CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) are not homogeneous but rather can be grouped by molecular, morphological, and functional properties. However, less is known about synaptic sources differentiating PCs. Using paired recordings in vitro, two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in vivo, and computational modeling, we found that parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (PVBCs) evoked(More)
PURPOSE Absence seizures cause transient impairment of consciousness. Typical absence seizures occur in children, and are accompanied by 3-4-Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs) on electroencephalography (EEG). Prior EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of SWDs have shown a network of cortical and subcortical changes during these electrical(More)
Patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) often demonstrate impaired interictal attention, even with control of their seizures. No previous study has investigated the brain networks involved in this impairment. We used the continuous performance task (CPT) of attentional vigilance and the repetitive tapping task (RTT), a control motor task, to examine(More)
Generalized tonic-clonic seizures cause widespread physiological changes throughout the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures in the brain. Using combined blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 9.4 T and electroencephalography (EEG), these changes can be characterized with high spatiotemporal resolution. We(More)
The default mode network has been hypothesized based on the observation that specific regions of the brain are consistently activated during the resting state and deactivated during engagement with task. The primary nodes of this network, which typically include the precuneus/posterior cingulate, the medial frontal and lateral parietal cortices, are thought(More)
Patients with epilepsy are at risk of traffic accidents when they have seizures while driving. However, driving is an essential part of normal daily life in many communities, and depriving patients of driving privileges can have profound consequences for their economic and social well-being. In the current study, we collected ictal performance data from a(More)
PURPOSE Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based resting functional connectivity is well suited for measuring slow correlated activity throughout brain networks. Epilepsy involves chronic changes in normal brain networks, and recent work demonstrated enhanced resting fMRI connectivity between the hemispheres in childhood absence epilepsy. An(More)