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Fluorescent proteins are genetically encoded, easily imaged reporters crucial in biology and biotechnology. When a protein is tagged by fusion to a fluorescent protein, interactions between fluorescent proteins can undesirably disturb targeting or function. Unfortunately, all wild-type yellow-to-red fluorescent proteins reported so far are obligately(More)
The recent explosion in the diversity of available fluorescent proteins (FPs) promises a wide variety of new tools for biological imaging. With no unified standard for assessing these tools, however, a researcher is faced with difficult questions. Which FPs are best for general use? Which are the brightest? What additional factors determine which are best(More)
All organic fluorophores undergo irreversible photobleaching during prolonged illumination. Although fluorescent proteins typically bleach at a substantially slower rate than many small-molecule dyes, in many cases the lack of sufficient photostability remains an important limiting factor for experiments requiring large numbers of images of single cells.(More)
The variant of Aequorea green fluorescent protein (GFP) known as blue fluorescent protein (BFP) was originally engineered by substituting histidine for tyrosine in the chromophore precursor sequence. Herein we report improved versions of BFP along with a variety of engineered fluorescent protein variants with novel and distinct chromophore structures that(More)
We report a monomeric yellow-green fluorescent protein, mNeonGreen, derived from a tetrameric fluorescent protein from the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum. mNeonGreen is the brightest monomeric green or yellow fluorescent protein yet described to our knowledge, performs exceptionally well as a fusion tag for traditional imaging as well as(More)
During myofibril formation, Z-bodies, small complexes of alpha-actinin and associated proteins, grow in size, fuse and align to produce Z-bands. To determine if there were changes in protein dynamics during the assembly process, Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching was used to measure the exchange of Z-body and Z-band proteins with cytoplasmic pools(More)
The lack of genomic resources can present challenges for studies of non-model organisms. Transcriptome sequencing offers an attractive method to gather information about genes and gene expression without the need for a reference genome. However, it is unclear what sequencing depth is adequate to assemble the transcriptome de novo for these purposes. We(More)
Current fluorescent protein (FP) development strategies are focused on fine-tuning the photophysical properties of blue to yellow variants derived from the Aequorea victoria jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) and on the development of monomeric FPs from other organisms that emit in the yellow-orange to far-red regions of the visible light spectrum.(More)
Most evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo") studies of emerging model organisms focus on small numbers of candidate genes cloned individually using degenerate PCR. However, newly available sequencing technologies such as 454 pyrosequencing have recently begun to allow for massive gene discovery in animals without sequenced genomes. Within insects,(More)
Both Src kinase and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) play critical roles in cancer invasion and metastasis. It is not clear, however, how the spatiotemporal activation of these two critical enzymes is coordinated in response to an oncogenic epithelial growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Here, we have visualized the activities of Src and(More)