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Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling plays a key role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) is a member of the TGF-β family of signal transduction molecules. To examine if germline mutation in BMP4 causes CRC we analysed 504 genetically enriched CRC cases (by virtue of early-onset disease, family history of CRC) for(More)
Optimization of the imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-based series of Aurora kinase inhibitors led to the identification of 6-chloro-7-(4-(4-chlorobenzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-(1,3-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (27e), a potent inhibitor of Aurora kinases (Aurora-A K(d) = 7.5 nM, Aurora-B K(d) = 48 nM), FLT3 kinase (K(d) = 6.2 nM), and FLT3 mutants(More)
In this paper we propose a novel graph-based genetic algorithm for the evolution of novel molecular graphs from a predefined set of elements or molecular fragments with an external objective function. A brief overview of existing genetic algorithm approaches in molecular design is provided followed by a description of our approach. The paper continues to(More)
A virtual environment-based endoscopic third ventriculostomy simulator is being developed for training neurosurgeons as a standardized method for evaluating competency. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a patient's brain are used to construct the geometry model, realistic behavior in the surgical area is simulated by using physical modeling and surgical(More)
Improving the profile of a molecule for the drug-discovery process requires the simultaneous optimization of numerous, often competing objectives. Traditionally, standard chemoinformatics methods ignored this problem and focused on the sequential optimization of each single biological or chemical property (ie, a single objective). This approach, known as(More)
The scaffold diversity of 7 representative commercial and proprietary compound libraries is explored for the first time using both Murcko frameworks and Scaffold Trees. We show that Level 1 of the Scaffold Tree is useful for the characterization of scaffold diversity in compound libraries and offers advantages over the use of Murcko frameworks. This(More)
The ever-growing malware threat in the cyber space calls for techniques that are more effective than widely deployed signature-based detection systems and more scalable than manual reverse engineering by forensic experts. To counter large volumes of malware variants, machine learning techniques have been applied recently for automated malware(More)
Bromodomains are readers of the epigenetic code that specifically bind acetyl-lysine containing recognition sites on proteins. Recently the BET family of bromodomains has been demonstrated to be druggable through the discovery of potent inhibitors, sparking an interest in protein-protein interaction inhibitors that directly target gene transcription. Here,(More)
Following the theoretical model by Hann et al. moderately complex structures are preferable lead compounds since they lead to specific binding events involving the complete ligand molecule. To make this concept usable in practice for library design, we studied several complexity measures on the biological activity of ligand molecules. We applied the(More)