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Structures resembling remarkably preserved bacterial and cyanobacterial microfossils from about 3,465-million-year-old Apex cherts of the Warrawoona Group in Western Australia currently provide the oldest morphological evidence for life on Earth and have been taken to support an early beginning for oxygen-producing photosynthesis. Eleven species of(More)
Sulphur and carbon isotopic analyses on small samples of kerogens and sulphide minerals from biogenic and non-biogenic sediments of the 2.7 x 10(9) years(Ga)-old Belingwe Greenstone Belt (Zimbabwe) imply that a complex biological sulphur cycle was in operation. Sulphur isotopic compositions display a wider range of biological fractionation than hitherto(More)
Modelling suggests that the UV radiation environment of the early Earth, with DNA weighted irradiances of about three orders of magnitude greater than those at present, was hostile to life forms at the surface, unless they lived in specific protected habitats. However, we present empirical evidence that challenges this commonly held view. We describe a(More)
To reveal what controls the concentration and distribution of possibly hazardous (Mn, U, Se, Cd, Bi, Pb) and nonhazardous (Fe, V, Mo, PO(4)) trace elements in groundwater of the Bengal delta, we mapped their concentrations in shallow groundwater (<60 mbgl) across 102 km(2) of West Bengal. Only Mn is a potential threat to health, with 55% of well water(More)
The Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), a period of intense, global warming about 55 million years ago, has been attributed to a rapid rise in greenhouse gas levels, with dissociation of methane hydrates being the most commonly invoked explanation. It has been suggested previously that high-latitude methane emissions from terrestrial environments(More)
It has been proposed that extensive wildfires occurred after the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) impact event. An abundance of soot and pyrosynthetic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) in marine K-T boundary impact rocks (BIRs) have been considered support for this hypothesis. However, nonmarine K-T BIRs, from across North America, contain only rare(More)
The consumption of groundwater polluted by arsenic (As) has a severe and adverse effect on human health, particularly where, as happens in parts of SE Asia, groundwater is supplied largely from fluvial/deltaic aquifers. The lateral distribution of the As-pollution in such aquifers is heterogeneous. The cause of the heterogeneity is obscure. The location and(More)
A continuous flow method (CF-IRMS) for the rapid determination of the sulfur isotope composition of sulfide and sulfate minerals has significant advantages over the classic extraction method in terms of the reduced sample quantity and a rapid analytical cycle of less than 8 min/ analysis. For optimum performance, the technique is sensitive to a number of(More)
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