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While the structure of the nucleosome core is known in atomic detail, the precise geometry of the DNA beyond the core particle is still unknown. We have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for determining the end-to-end distance of DNA fragments assembled with histones into nucleosomes. The DNA of a length of 150-220 bp was labeled with(More)
Using small angle neutron scattering we have measured the static form factor of two different superhelical DNAs, p1868 (1868 bp) and pUC18 (2686 bp), in dilute aqueous solution at salt concentrations between 0 and 1.5 M Na+ in 10 mM Tris at 0% and 100% D2O. For both DNA molecules, the theoretical static form factor was also calculated from an ensemble of(More)
Using a previously described FRET technique, we measured the distance between the ends of DNA fragments on which nucleosomes were reconstituted from recombinant and native histones. This distance was analyzed in its dependence on the DNA fragment length, concentration of mono- and divalent counterions, presence of linker histone H1, and histone(More)
The flexibility of the chromatin structure, necessary for the processing of the genomic DNA, is controlled by a number of factors where flexibility and mobility of the nucleosomes is essential. Here, the influence of DNA supercoiling on the structure of single nucleosomes is investigated. Circular supercoiled plasmid DNA sub-saturated with histones was(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are a family of materials featuring a large range of length, diameter, numbers of walls and, quite often metallic impurities coming from the catalyst used for their synthesis. They exhibit unique physical properties, which have already led to an extensive development of CNT for numerous applications. Because of this development and(More)
X-ray fluorescence microscopy (microXRF) is applied for the first time to study macrophages exposed to unpurified and purified single-walled (SW) and multiwalled (MW) carbon nanotubes (CNT). Investigating chemical elemental distributions allows one to (i) image nanotube localization within a cell and (ii) detect chemical modification of the cell after CNT(More)
In southern France, Diplozoon gracile (Monogenea, Polyopisthocotylea), parasitizes four sympatric cyprinids. One of these host species, Barbus meridionalis, naturally hybridizes with another species of barbel, Barbus barbus, which is never parasitized by D. gracile under natural conditions. This hybridization has previously been studied and described as an(More)
Recent advances in detectors and computer science have enabled the acquisition and the processing of multidimensional datasets, in particular in the field of spectral imaging. Benefiting from these new developments, Earth scientists try to recover the reflectance spectra of macroscopic materials (e.g., water, grass, mineral types…) present in an observed(More)
Sentiment analysis from a text requires amongst others having a polarity lexical resource. We designed LikeIt, a GWAP (Game With A Purpose) that allows to attribute a positive, negative or neutral value to a term, and thus obtain a resulting polarity for most of the terms of the freely available lexical network of the JeuxDeMots project. We present a(More)
En TAL et plus particulièrement en analyse sémantique, les informations sur la couleur peuvent être importantes pour traiter correctement des informations textuelles (sens des mots, désambiguïsation et indexation). Plus généralement, connaître la ou les couleurs habituellement associée(s) à un terme est une information cruciale. Dans cet article, nous(More)