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Based on the dominance of cellular senescence over immortality, immortal human cell lines have been assigned to four complementation groups for indefinite division. Human chromosomes carrying senescence genes have been identified, including chromosome 4. We report the cloning and identification of a gene, mortality factor 4 (MORF 4), which induces a(More)
Mutations in genes encoding chromatin-remodeling proteins, such as the ATRX gene, underlie a number of genetic disorders including several X-linked mental retardation syndromes; however, the role of these proteins in normal CNS development is unknown. Here, we used a conditional gene-targeting approach to inactivate Atrx, specifically in the forebrain of(More)
The mouse fidget mutation is an autosomal recessive mutation that renders reduced or absent semicircular canals, microphthalmia, and various skeletal abnormalities to affected mice. We previously identified the defective gene which encodes fidgetin, a new member of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA proteins). Here, we report on(More)
The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) has been proposed to regulate cell cycle progression in part through its ability to interact with enzymes that modify histone tails and create a repressed chromatin structure. We created a mutation in the murine Rb1 gene that disrupted pRb's ability to interact with these enzymes to determine if it affected cell cycle(More)
ATRX is a SWI/SNF-like chromatin remodeling protein mutated in several X-linked mental retardation syndromes. Gene inactivation studies in mice demonstrate that ATRX is an essential protein and suggest that patient mutations likely retain partial activity. ATRX associates with the nuclear matrix, pericentromeric heterochromatin, and promyelocytic leukemia(More)
Coordinated transition from proliferation to terminal differentiation and hypertrophy of growth plate chondrocytes is required for normal growth of endochondral bones and thus determines final height in humans. Over the last decades, transcription factors of the Sox and Runx families have been shown to be the central regulators of this process. More(More)
The hypothalamic kisspeptin signaling system is a major positive regulator of the reproductive neuroendocrine axis, and loss of Kiss1 in the mouse results in infertility, a condition generally attributed to its hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We demonstrate that in Kiss1(-/-) female mice, acute replacement of gonadotropins and estradiol restores ovulation,(More)
Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation X linked (ATRX) is a switch/sucrose nonfermenting-type ATPase localized at pericentromeric heterochromatin in mouse and human cells. Human ATRX mutations give rise to mental retardation syndromes characterized by developmental delay, facial dysmorphisms, cognitive deficits, and microcephaly and the loss of ATRX in the(More)
Mutations in the ATRX gene are associated with an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndrome most often accompanied by alpha-thalassaemia (ATR-X syndrome). The ATRX gene encodes a predicted protein of 280 kDa featuring a PHD zinc finger motif and an ATPase/helicase domain of the SWI/SNF type; the vast majority of mutations in the ATRX gene fall within(More)
Human developmental disorders caused by chromatin dysfunction often display overlapping clinical manifestations, such as cognitive deficits, but the underlying molecular links are poorly defined. Here, we show that ATRX, MeCP2, and cohesin, chromatin regulators implicated in ATR-X, RTT, and CdLS syndromes, respectively, interact in the brain and colocalize(More)