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Autonomic failure is a key feature of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Moreover, early autonomic failure is an independent predictive factor for rapid disease progression and shorter survival. The assessment of autonomic failure is therefore important for both, the diagnosis and prognosis of MSA. Here, we evaluate autonomic dysfunction in MSA patients by the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical spectrum and distinguishing features of adenylate cyclase 5 (ADCY5)-related dyskinesia and genotype-phenotype relationship. METHODS We analyzed ADCY5 in patients with choreiform or dystonic movements by exome or targeted sequencing. Suspected mosaicism was confirmed by allele-specific amplification. We evaluated(More)
BACKGROUND The X-linked McLeod syndrome belongs to the group of neuroacanthocytosis syndromes and has a Huntington-disease-like phenotype with a choreatic movement disorder, cognitive alterations, and psychiatric symptoms. Another neuroacanthocytosis syndrome, the autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis, has a similar presentation, but distinct clinical(More)
Vanishing white matter (VWM) disease, also known as childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome, is an autosomal recessive transmitted leukodystrophy. Classically characterised by early childhood onset, adult onset formed with slower progression have been recently recognized. The course of neurological impairment is usually(More)
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. It is the most frequent disorder among atypical parkinsonism with an estimated prevalence of 2 to 5 per 100 000 inhabitants. The clinical symptoms are rapidly progressing with a mean survival ranging between 6 to 9 years. The diagnosis is based on consensus criteria(More)
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