Learn More
BACKGROUND & AIMS Natural killer (NK) cells provide early defense against viral infections by killing infected cells and producing cytokines that inhibit viral replication. NK cells also interact with dendritic cells (DCs) and this reciprocal interaction regulates both innate and adaptive immunity. Genetic studies have suggested that NK cell activity is a(More)
Loss of CD4 T cell help correlates with virus persistence during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underlying mechanism(s) remain unknown. We developed a combined proliferation/intracellular cytokine staining assay to monitor expansion of HCV-specific CD4 T cells and helper cytokines expression patterns during acute infections with different(More)
The activity of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in differentiated tissues under basal conditions remains poorly explored. We measured rates of ubiquitination in rat tissue extracts. Accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins increased in the presence of ubiquitin aldehyde, indicating that deubiquitinating enzymes can regulate ubiquitination. Rates of(More)
Activated skeletal muscle proteolysis in catabolic states has been linked to an upregulation of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system. Previous studies suggested that the N-end rule pathway is primarily responsible for the bulk of skeletal muscle proteolysis. The activity of this pathway is dependent on the 14-kDa ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme(More)
We previously reported that the USP19 deubiquitinating enzyme positively regulates proliferation in fibroblasts by stabilizing KPC1, a ubiquitin ligase for p27(Kip1). To explore whether this role of USP19 extends to other cellular systems, we tested the effects of silencing of USP19 in several human prostate and breast models, including carcinoma cell(More)
The ubiquitin system plays a critical role in muscle wasting. Previous work has focused on the roles of ubiquitination. However, a role for deubiquitination in this process has not been established. Because ubiquitin-specific protease (USP)19 deubiquitinating enzyme is induced in skeletal muscle in many catabolic conditions, we generated USP19 knockout (KO)(More)
Ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis is activated in skeletal muscle atrophying in response to various catabolic stimuli. Previous studies have demonstrated activation of ubiquitin conjugation. Because ubiquitination can also be regulated by deubiquitinating enzymes, we used degenerate oligonucleotides derived from conserved sequences in the ubiquitin-specific(More)
The majority of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections progress to chronicity and progressive liver damage. Alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) antiviral therapy achieves the highest rate of success when IFN-alpha is administered early during the acute phase, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We used a panel of major histocompatibility complex class I(More)
SUMMARY Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a worldwide health problem. No vaccine is available against this pathogen and therapeutic treatments currently in use are of limited efficacy. In the present study, the immunogenicity of the therapeutic vaccine candidate CIGB-230, based on the mixture of pIDKE2, a plasmid expressing HCV structural antigens, with a(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role in spermatogenesis. However, the functions of deubiquitinating enzymes in this process remain poorly characterized. We previously showed that the deubiquitinating enzyme USP2 is induced in late elongating spermatids. To identify its function, we generated mice lacking USP2. Usp2 -/- mice appeared(More)