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RNA interference in mammalian cells is actively used to conduct genetic screens, to identify and to validate targets, and to elucidate regulators and modifiers of cellular pathways. To ensure the specificity and efficacy of the active 21mer siRNA molecules, it is pertinent to develop a strategy for their rational design. Here we show that most functional(More)
The HIV-1 Nef protein is a pathogenic factor modulating the behavior of infected cells. Nef induces actin cytoskeleton changes and impairs cell migration toward chemokines. We further characterized the morphology, cytoskeleton dynamics, and motility of HIV-1-infected lymphocytes. By using scanning electron microscopy, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy,(More)
Pathogens use diverse molecular machines to penetrate host cells and manipulate intracellular vesicular trafficking. Viruses employ glycoproteins, functionally and structurally similar to the SNARE proteins, to induce eukaryotic membrane fusion. Intracellular pathogens, on the other hand, need to block fusion of their infectious phagosomes with various(More)
Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Human leishmaniases are parasitic diseases causing severe morbidity and mortality. No vaccine is available and numerous factors limit the use of current therapies. There is thus an urgent need for innovative initiatives to identify new chemotypes displaying selective activity against intracellular Leishmania amastigotes that develop(More)
The Notch signaling pathway is involved in liver development and regeneration. Here, we investigate the role of the 4 mammalian Notch paralogs in the regulation of hepatoblast proliferation and hepatocytic differentiation. Our model is based on bipotential mouse embryonic liver (BMEL) progenitors that can differentiate into hepatocytes or cholangiocytes in(More)
We describe here a series of N-(quinolin-8-yl)benzenesulfonamides capable of suppressing the NFkappaB pathway identified from two high-throughput screens run at two centers of the NIH Molecular Libraries Initiative. These small molecules were confirmed in both primary and secondary assays of NFkappaB activation and expanded upon through analogue synthesis.(More)
Existing therapies for leishmaniases present significant limitations, such as toxic side effects, and are rendered inefficient by parasite resistance. It is of utmost importance to develop novel drugs targeting Leishmania that take these two limitations into consideration. We thus chose a target-based approach using an exoprotein kinase, Leishmania casein(More)
A quinazoline that decreases polyglutamine aggregate burden in a cell-based assay was identified from a high-throughput screen of a chemical-compound library, provided by the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR). A structure and activity study yielded leads with submicromolar potency.
The common and persistent failures to translate promising preclinical drug candidates into clinical success highlight the limited effectiveness of disease models currently used in drug discovery. An apparent reluctance to explore and adopt alternative cell- and tissue-based model systems, coupled with a detachment from clinical practice during assay(More)