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Empowerment research has generally been limited to the individual level of analysis. Efforts to study empowerment beyond the individual require conceptual frameworks suggesting attributes that define the construct and guide its measurement. This paper presents an initial attempt to describe the nomological network of empowerment at the organizational level(More)
Empowerment theory represents an expansive view of individual and collective behavior that includes the active participation of individuals and groups in altering and shaping the socioenvironmental context. Critical to health educators are local interventions that yield participation of community members and empowerment for participants. The concept of(More)
OBJECTIVES The overall objective of this article was to review the theoretical and conceptual dimensions of how the implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is likely to affect treatment costs. METHODS An important limitation of the extant literature on the cost effects of CPGs is that the main focus has been on clinical adaptation. We submit(More)
The Sociopolitical Control Scale (SPCS) is a widely used measure of the intrapersonal component of psychological empowerment. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted with data from two samples to test the hypothesized structure of the SPCS, the potential effects of method bias on the measure's psychometric properties, and whether a revised version(More)
OBJECTIVES Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. METHODS Abatement is associated(More)
The objective of this paper is to describe the market structure of health plans (HPs) and physician organizations (POs) in California, a state with high levels of managed care penetration and selective contracting. First we calculate Herfindahl-Hirschman (HHI) concentration indices for HPs and POs in 42 California counties. We then estimate a multivariable(More)
This study assessed the geographic association between tobacco outlet density and three demographic correlates-income, race, and ethnicity-at the tract level of analysis for one county in the Midwestern United States. Data for residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. county were derived from year 2003 licenses for 474 tobacco outlets. Demographic(More)
This study assessed the geographic association between rates of assaultive violence and alcohol-outlet density in Kansas City, Missouri. Data were obtained for sociodemographic factors, alcohol-outlet density, and rates of assaultive violence across 89 inner-city census tracts in Kansas City, Missouri. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that(More)
The geographic associations between tobacco outlet density, cigarette smoking prevalence, and demographic variables at the county unit of analysis were examined. End of year 2002 data were derived from licenses of 4745 tobacco selling retail outlets in all 99 Iowa counties. The 2000 census and the 2002 Iowa Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System(More)
OBJECTIVE Studies of relationships between tobacco sales and socio-economic/sociodemographic characteristics are well documented. However, when analysing the data that are collected on geographic areas, the spatial effects are seldom considered, which could lead to potential misleading analytical results. This study addresses this concern by applying the(More)