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BACKGROUND Encephalitis has many causes, but for most patients the cause is unknown. We aimed to establish the cause and identify the clinical differences between causes in patients with encephalitis in England. METHODS Patients of all ages and with symptoms suggestive of encephalitis were actively recruited for 2 years (staged start between October,(More)
These guidelines, produced by the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) aim to help decision making in the investigation and management of pregnant women who have 'a rash compatible with a systemic viral illness', or who have contact with a person with such an illness. They address particularly rubella, parvovirus B19, and varicella-zoster virus(More)
We investigated the comparative seroepidemiology of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women of two ethnic groups, white British and Bangladeshi, living in an inner city area of London, United Kingdom. Women aged 16-45 years were recruited from antenatal clinics of the Royal London Hospital in the Borough of Tower Hamlets. Complete data were obtained(More)
BACKGROUND Seasonal and pandemic influenza virus infections in renal transplant patients are associated with poor outcomes. During the pandemic of 2009-2010, the AS03-adjuvanted monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine was recommended for transplant recipients, although its immunogenicity in this population was unknown. We sought to determine the safety and(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine used in Canada during autumn 2009. DESIGN Test negative incident case-control study based on sentinel physician surveillance system. SETTING Community based clinics contributing to sentinel networks in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec, Canada. PARTICIPANTS 552(More)
n engl j med 361;20 nejm.org november 12, 2009 2000 predictive of poor outcome.3 Hypothermia can decrease the rise in NSE levels and may lead to reduced sensitivity for poor outcome, but the drop in NSE levels in patients who have had hypothermic treatment may also reflect increased neuroprotection.4 It seems unlikely that NSE levels would rise after(More)
Defining the causal relationship between a microbe and encephalitis is complex. Over 100 different infectious agents may cause encephalitis, often as one of the rarer manifestations of infection. The gold-standard techniques to detect causative infectious agents in encephalitis in life depend on the study of brain biopsy material; however, in most cases(More)