Natasha Sarah Crowcroft

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BACKGROUND Encephalitis has many causes, but for most patients the cause is unknown. We aimed to establish the cause and identify the clinical differences between causes in patients with encephalitis in England. METHODS Patients of all ages and with symptoms suggestive of encephalitis were actively recruited for 2 years (staged start between October,(More)
BACKGROUND During the 2010-2011 winter, a large number of outbreaks due to influenza A/H3N2 at long-term care facilities, including higher-than-expected attack rates among vaccinated staff, were reported in some regions of Canada. Interim analysis from the community-based sentinel surveillance system showed circulating H3N2 variants and suboptimal vaccine(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine used in Canada during autumn 2009. DESIGN Test negative incident case-control study based on sentinel physician surveillance system. SETTING Community based clinics contributing to sentinel networks in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec, Canada. PARTICIPANTS 552(More)
Diphtheria is an uncommon disease in the UK due to an effective immunization programme; consequently when cases do arise, there can be delays in diagnosis and case-fatality rates remain high. We reviewed 102 patients with infections caused by toxigenic corynebacteria (an average of four per year) reported in the UK between 1986 and 2008: 42 Corynebacterium(More)
Encephalitis means inflammation of the brain matter. Despite being a rare condition, encephalitis is of public health importance worldwide because it has high morbidity and mortality. Yet, many details about its epidemiology have yet to be elucidated. This review attempts to summarise what is known about the epidemiology of the infective causes of(More)
We investigated the comparative seroepidemiology of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women of two ethnic groups, white British and Bangladeshi, living in an inner city area of London, United Kingdom. Women aged 16-45 years were recruited from antenatal clinics of the Royal London Hospital in the Borough of Tower Hamlets. Complete data were obtained(More)
We analyzed hospitalizations in England from April 1, 1989, to March 31, 1998, and identified approximately 700 cases, 46 fatal, from viral encephalitis that occurred during each year; most (60%) were of unknown etiology. Of cases with a diagnosis, the largest proportion was herpes simplex encephalitis. Using normal and Poisson regression, we identified six(More)
n engl j med 361;20 nejm.org november 12, 2009 2000 predictive of poor outcome.3 Hypothermia can decrease the rise in NSE levels and may lead to reduced sensitivity for poor outcome, but the drop in NSE levels in patients who have had hypothermic treatment may also reflect increased neuroprotection.4 It seems unlikely that NSE levels would rise after(More)
Background: The use of live oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) has led to the elimination of poliomyelitis disease in many countries since licensure in 1960. The discovery of an increased risk of an intestinal obstruction known as intussusception following live rotavirus vaccination raised questions about the possibility of a link between live OPV and(More)