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BACKGROUND Encephalitis has many causes, but for most patients the cause is unknown. We aimed to establish the cause and identify the clinical differences between causes in patients with encephalitis in England. METHODS Patients of all ages and with symptoms suggestive of encephalitis were actively recruited for 2 years (staged start between October,(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine used in Canada during autumn 2009. DESIGN Test negative incident case-control study based on sentinel physician surveillance system. SETTING Community based clinics contributing to sentinel networks in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec, Canada. PARTICIPANTS 552(More)
Defining the causal relationship between a microbe and encephalitis is complex. Over 100 different infectious agents may cause encephalitis, often as one of the rarer manifestations of infection. The gold-standard techniques to detect causative infectious agents in encephalitis in life depend on the study of brain biopsy material; however, in most cases(More)
OBJECTIVE Invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) disease is a low incidence but severe infection (mean annual incidence 0.19/100,000/year, case fatality 11%, major long-term sequelae 10%) in Ontario, Canada. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of a novel MenB vaccine from the Ontario healthcare payer perspective. METHODS A Markov cohort(More)
As part of an enhanced surveillance programme for pertussis in England and Wales, a real-time PCR service for the detection of Bordetella pertussis was introduced for infants aged <or=6 months admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit or paediatric ward with a respiratory illness compatible with pertussis. Two real-time fluorescent resonance energy(More)
Encephalitis means inflammation of the brain matter. Despite being a rare condition, encephalitis is of public health importance worldwide because it has high morbidity and mortality. Yet, many details about its epidemiology have yet to be elucidated. This review attempts to summarise what is known about the epidemiology of the infective causes of(More)
We investigated the comparative seroepidemiology of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women of two ethnic groups, white British and Bangladeshi, living in an inner city area of London, United Kingdom. Women aged 16-45 years were recruited from antenatal clinics of the Royal London Hospital in the Borough of Tower Hamlets. Complete data were obtained(More)