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The ability of exercise to decrease fat mass and increase bone mass may occur through mechanical biasing of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) away from adipogenesis and toward osteoblastogenesis. C3H10T1/2 MSCs cultured in highly adipogenic medium express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adiponectin mRNA and protein, and accumulate(More)
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT), associated with skeletal fragility and hematologic insufficiency, remains poorly understood and difficult to quantify. We tested the response of MAT to high fat diet (HFD) and exercise using a novel volumetric analysis, and compared it to measures of bone quantity. We hypothesized that HFD would increase MAT and diminish bone(More)
We studied the intracellular distribution of drugs within anthracycline-sensitive and -resistant cells by computer-assisted digitized video fluorescence microscopy. We found that the antitumor antibiotic, daunorubicin, distributes differently in anthracycline-sensitive and -resistant human leukemia cells (HL-60). Verapamil and other agents known to(More)
UNLABELLED The skeletal phenotype of the cav-1(-/-) mouse, which lacks caveolae, was examined. muCT and histology showed increased trabecular and cortical bone caused by the gene deletion. Structural changes were accompanied by increased mechanical properties. Cell studies showed that cav-1 deficiency leads to increased osteoblast differentiation. These(More)
Mechanical factors play a crucial role in the development of articular cartilage in vivo. In this regard, tissue engineers have sought to leverage native mechanotransduction pathways to enhance in vitro stem cell-based cartilage repair strategies. However, a thorough understanding of how individual mechanical factors influence stem cell fate is needed to(More)
Mechanical loading of bone initiates an anabolic, anticatabolic pattern of response, yet the molecular events involved in mechanical signal transduction are not well understood. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been recognized in promoting bone anabolism, and application of strain has been shown to induce beta-catenin activation. In this work, we have used a(More)
Mechanical stimulation can prevent adipogenic and improve osteogenic lineage allocation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), an effect associated with the preservation of beta-catenin levels. We asked whether mechanical up-regulation of beta-catenin was critical to reduction in adipogenesis as well as other mechanical events inducing alternate MSC lineage(More)
The fate of pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is determined through integration of chemical, spatial, and physical signals. The suppression of MSC adipogenesis by mechanical stimuli, which requires Akt-induced inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) with β-catenin activation, can be enhanced by repetitive dosing within a single day. Here,(More)
Both mechanical loading and nitric oxide (NO) have positive influences on bone mass. NO production is induced by mechanical strain via upregulation of eNOS mRNA and protein, the predominant NOS in adult bone. At the same time, strain causes decreased expression of RANKL, a factor critical for osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we harvested primary stromal(More)
Mechanical signals of both low and high intensity are inhibitory to fat and anabolic to bone in vivo, and have been shown to directly affect mesenchymal stem cell pools from which fat and bone precursors emerge. To identify an idealized mechanical regimen which can regulate MSC fate, low intensity vibration (LIV; <10 microstrain, 90 Hz) and high magnitude(More)