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Efficient infection control requires potent T-cell responses at sites of pathogen replication. However, the regulation of T-cell effector function in situ remains poorly understood. Here, we show key differences in the regulation of effector activity between CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells during skin infection with HSV-1. IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells disseminated(More)
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic orthopoxvirus and was the live vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. In addition, VACV is a possible vector for recombinant vaccines. Despite these reasons for study, the roles of many VACV genes are unknown, and some fundamental aspects, such as the total size of immune responses, remain poorly characterized. VACV gene(More)
Enumeration of anti-viral CD8(+) T cells to make comparisons between mice, viruses and vaccines is a frequently used approach, but controversy persists as to the most appropriate methods. Use of peptide-MHC tetramers (or variants) and intracellular staining for cytokines, in particular IFNγ, after a short ex vivo stimulation are now common, as are a variety(More)
DOCK8 deficiency in humans and mice leads to multiple defects in immune cell numbers and function. Patients with this immunodeficiency have a high morbidity and mortality, and are distinguished by chronic cutaneous viral infections, including those caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). The underlying mechanism of the specific susceptibility to these chronic(More)
BACKGROUND Effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication, restores CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and greatly reduces the incidence of opportunistic infections. While this demonstrates improved generalized immune function, rapid rebound to pre-treatment viral replication levels following treatment(More)
The inability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD8(+) T cells to durably control HIV replication due to HIV escape mutations and CD8(+) T cell dysfunction is a key factor in disease progression. A few HIV-infected individuals termed elite controllers (EC) maintain polyfunctional HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells, minimal HIV replication and normal(More)
CD8(+) T cells that recognize virus-derived peptides presented on MHC class I are vital antiviral effectors. Such peptides presented by any given virus vary greatly in immunogenicity, allowing them to be ranked in an immunodominance hierarchy. However, the full range of parameters that determine immunodominance and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown.(More)
Vaccinia virus (VACV) gene F5L was recently identified as a determinant of plaque morphology that is truncated in Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). Here we show that F5L also affects plaque morphology of the virulent VACV strain Western Reserve (WR) in some, but not all cell lines, and not via previously described mechanisms. Further, despite a(More)
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