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Allosteric interactions are typically considered to proceed through a series of discrete changes in bonding interactions that alter the protein conformation. Here we show that allostery can be mediated exclusively by transmitted changes in protein motions. We have characterized the negatively cooperative binding of cAMP to the dimeric catabolite activator(More)
Microsomal cytochrome b5 (cytb5) is a membrane-bound protein that modulates the catalytic activity of its redox partner, cytochrome P4502B4 (cytP450). Here, we report the first structure of full-length rabbit ferric microsomal cytb5 (16 kDa), incorporated in two different membrane mimetics (detergent micelles and lipid bicelles). Differential line(More)
Inactivation of the TNFAIP3 gene, encoding the A20 protein, is associated with critical inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. However, the role of A20 in attenuating inflammatory signalling is unclear owing to paradoxical in vitro and in vivo findings. Here we utilize genetically engineered mice(More)
Amyloid fibers in human semen known as SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection) dramatically increase the infectivity of HIV and other enveloped viruses, which appears to be linked to the promotion of bridging interactions and the neutralization of electrostatic repulsion between the host and the viral cell membranes. The SEVI precursor PAP(248-286)(More)
Semen is the main vector for HIV transmission worldwide. Recently, a peptide fragment (PAP(248-286)) has been isolated from seminal fluid that dramatically enhances HIV infectivity by up to 4-5 orders of magnitude. PAP(248-286) appears to enhance HIV infection by forming amyloid fibers known as SEVI, which are believed to enhance the attachment of the virus(More)
Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286) in human semen dramatically increase HIV infection efficiency by increasing virus adhesion to target cells. PAP248-286 only enhances HIV infection in the form of amyloid aggregates termed SEVI (Semen Enhancer of Viral Infection), however monomeric PAP248-286 aggregates very slowly in isolation. It has(More)
The cAMP-mediated allosteric transition in the catabolite activator protein (CAP; also known as the cAMP receptor protein, CRP) is a textbook example of modulation of DNA-binding activity by small-molecule binding. Here we report the structure of CAP in the absence of cAMP, which, together with structures of CAP in the presence of cAMP, defines atomic(More)
Recently, a 39 amino acid peptide fragment from prostatic acid phosphatase has been isolated from seminal fluid that can enhance infectivity of the HIV virus by up to 4-5 orders of magnitude. PAP(248-286) is effective in enhancing HIV infectivity only when it is aggregated into amyloid fibers termed SEVI. The polyphenol EGCG (epigallocatechin-3-gallate) has(More)
Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (hIAPP) is a highly amyloidogenic protein found in islet cells of patients with type II diabetes. Because hIAPP is highly toxic to beta-cells under certain conditions, it has been proposed that hIAPP is linked to the loss of beta-cells and insulin secretion in type II diabetics. One of the interesting questions surrounding(More)
NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is an essential redox partner of the cytochrome P450 (cyt P450) superfamily of metabolic enzymes. In the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells, such enzymes metabolize ~75% of the pharmaceuticals in use today. It is known that the transmembrane domain of CYPOR plays a crucial role in aiding the formation of a(More)
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