Natalie Waters

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Friction in fixed appliance systems has received considerable attention in the recent literature, although that attributable to the type of ligation used has not been fully investigated. This in vitro study of 0.022 x 0.028 inch slot Minitwin, Activa ('A' Company, San Diego, California, USA), and SPEED brackets (Strite Industries Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario,(More)
Superelastic nickel-titanium archwires, unlike conventional wires, are capable of withstanding very large deflections and on returning to their original shape on deactivation will produce more moderate forces. The region over which there is a 'plateau' depends on the deflection and is greater the larger the deflection. With most wires both the initial wire(More)
The forces and couples produced by a model of the PG maxillary canine retraction spring (Danish loop) when activated have been derived by using the complementary (strain) energy method. The theoretical results of the analysis have been verified by experiments on enlarged planar models in a special jig that, by means of strain gauges, was capable of(More)
Retention to a master model of 10 nominally identical chrome-cobalt removable partial denture castings with standardized bilateral molar and premolar clasps engaging 0.25 mm (0.01 inch) undercuts and 10 castings with clasps engaging 0.5 mm (0.02 inch) undercuts was measured on an Instron testing machine. The retention of each framework was remeasured as the(More)