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The ability of innate immune cells to sense and respond to impending danger varies by anatomical location. The liver is considered tolerogenic but is still capable of mounting a successful immune response to clear various infections. To understand whether hepatic immune cells tune their response to different infectious challenges, we probed mononuclear(More)
BACKGROUND The accuracy of symptom-based diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is modest. AIMS To derive and validate a new test that utilises latent class analysis. METHODS Symptom, colonoscopy, and histology data were collected from 1981 patients and 360 patients in two cohorts referred to secondary care for investigation of their(More)
BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking is a well-established risk factor for the development of Crohn's disease, and this may lead to a more complicated disease course. However, recent evidence suggests that many patients with Crohn's disease are unaware of this fact. AIM To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of smoking on disease course in(More)
BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking is associated with a reduced risk of developing ulcerative colitis (UC). A high proportion of UC patients perceive a benefit in disease outcomes secondary to smoking. However, the effects of smoking on the natural history of UC are uncertain. AIM To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of tobacco smoking(More)
Skull defects are treated by cranioplasty techniques, which are required to protect underlying brain, correct major aesthetic deformities, or both. This research is a part of our research project in ASEAN countries to investigate (i) the methods for design and manufacturing of cranioplasty implants, and (ii) the feasible technical solutions of minimizing(More)
OBJECTIVE Many patients with diarrhoea undergo colonoscopy. If this is macroscopically normal, random biopsies are obtained to rule out microscopic colitis (MC), but most patients have functional disease. Accurate predictors of MC could avoid the need to take biopsies in a substantial proportion of patients, saving money for the health service. We validated(More)
OBJECTIVES Symptom-based criteria to diagnose irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) positively perform only modestly. Our aim was to assess whether including other items from the clinical history and limited diagnostic evaluation improves their performance. METHODS We collected complete symptom, colonoscopy, and histology data from 318 consecutive, unselected(More)