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A changing environment and lifestyle on the background of evolutionary engraved and perinatally imprinted physiological response patterns is the foremost explanation for the current obesity epidemic. However, it is not clear what the mechanisms are by which the modern environment overrides the physiological controls of appetite and homeostatic body-weight(More)
Given the unabated obesity problem, there is increasing appreciation of expressions like "my eyes are bigger than my stomach," and recent studies in rodents and humans suggest that dysregulated brain reward pathways may be contributing not only to drug addiction but also to increased intake of palatable foods and ultimately obesity. After describing recent(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS High fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance (IR) is partially characterized by reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) expression. Our previous study showed that a high dose of the bioflavonoid quercetin exacerbated HFD-induced IR; yet, others have(More)
Treatment of pain with opioids is limited by their potential abuse liability. In an effort to develop analgesics without this side effect, a series of bivalent ligands containing a mu-opioid receptor agonist pharmacophore connected to a delta-opioid receptor antagonist pharmacophore through variable-length spacers (16-21 atoms) was synthesized. Members of(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that micro-opioid receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens contributes to hedonic (over)eating and obesity. To investigate the effects of chronic micro-opioid antagonism in the nucleus accumbens core or shell on intake of a palatable diet, and the development of diet-induced obesity in rats. METHODS AND DESIGN Chronic(More)
Aims/Hypothesis: High fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance (IR) is partially characterized by reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1a) expression. Our previous study showed that a high dose of the bioflavonoid quercetin exacerbated HFD-induced IR; yet, others have(More)
Changes in brain tryptophan concentrations may affect the synthesis of brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Concentrations of tryptophan are regulated more than those of any other amino acid. Such stimuli as acute stress, carbohydrate ingestion, and treatment with various drugs increase the brain content of tryptophan. Treatment of rats and mice(More)
We tested the hypothesis that beta2- and beta3-adrenergic receptor-mediated increases in brain tryptophan are due to the liberation of fatty acids, which in turn displace tryptophan from its albumin-binding site and thus facilitate its entry into the brain. Male CD-1 mice were injected with subtype-selective beta-adrenergic agonists 1h before brain samples(More)
The chronic i.c.v. infusion of morphine has been reported for rats but not for mice. In the current report, the antinociceptive tolerance to both i.c.v. morphine infusion and s.c. implantation of morphine pellets in mice was compared. Physical dependence after i.c.v. morphine infusion was also evaluated. Osmotic minipumps were filled with morphine (50 mM),(More)
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