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1. Two monkeys were trained to grasp, lift, and hold an object within a vertical position window. A downward force-pulse perturbation was delivered during stationary object holding to simulate slip of the object due to gravity. The responses evoked by the perturbation were studied in 189 neurons of the hand area of the primary motor cortex. In addition, the(More)
1. Two monkeys were trained to grasp an object between the thumb and index finger and lift it to a vertical distance of 12-25 mm. Up to 12 different conditions defined by different combinations of object weights (15, 65, and 115 g) and four surface textures (oiled metal, smooth metal, fine and coarse sandpaper) were used. The apparatus was equipped to(More)
The activity of single cells in the cerebellar and motor cortex of awake monkeys was recorded during separate studies of whole-arm reaching movements and during the application of force-pulse perturbations to hand-held objects. Two general observations about the contribution of the cerebellum to the control of movement emerge from the data. The first,(More)
Neural activity was recorded from the median nerve of a monkey during grasping and lifting, using a chronically implanted cuff electrode. At the onset of lifting, there was an initial dynamic response during which the intensity of the neural signal increased rapidly. This neural response attained its peak value well before the displacement, the load force(More)
There is an increasing need for adaptivity in distributed software systems. The concept of " roles " has been put forward in literature as a promising approach to allow objects to evolve over time. In this paper, we propose to use roles for modeling adaptable distributed software systems. In particular, we study the use of Aspect-Oriented Software(More)
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