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BACKGROUND & AIMS The GLOBE trial has compared the efficacy and safety of telbivudine versus lamivudine treatment over 2 years in patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive (n = 921) and HBeAg-negative (n = 446) patients received telbivudine or lamivudine once daily for 104 weeks. The primary outcome, assessed in the(More)
BACKGROUND In phase 2 trials, telaprevir, a hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 protease inhibitor, in combination with peginterferon-ribavirin, as compared with peginterferon-ribavirin alone, has shown improved efficacy, with potential for shortening the duration of treatment in a majority of patients. METHODS In this international, phase 3, randomized,(More)
BACKGROUND Reducing hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication to minimal levels is emerging as a key therapeutic goal for chronic hepatitis B. METHODS In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, 1370 patients with chronic hepatitis B were randomly assigned to receive 600 mg of telbivudine or 100 mg of lamivudine once daily. The primary efficacy end point was(More)
BACKGROUND Protease inhibitors have improved treatment of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but dosing, a low barrier to resistance, drug interactions, and side-effects restrict their use. We assessed the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir, a uridine nucleotide analogue, in treatment-naive patients with genotype 1-3 HCV infection. METHODS In this(More)
Since spontaneous oral dyskinesias are more prevalent in the elderly, and since these movements may be controlled by the balance of brain dopamine D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, we measured the densities of these receptors in 247 postmortem brain striata. In childhood, the densities of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the brain striatum rise and fall(More)
Because dopamine D2 receptors are known to be elevated in schizophrenic brain striata, this study examined whether a similar dopamine receptor elevation occurred in other diseases including neuroleptic-treated Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. The average D1 density in postmortem striata from Alzheimer's patients was 17.6 +/- 0.1 pmol/g, similar to an(More)
OBJECTIVES Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a condition that results in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide because of progressive liver damage. Investigators undertaking economic evaluations of new therapeutic agents require estimates of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Recently, evidence has begun to accumulate that differences in cultural(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS T cells play a critical role in viral infection. We examined whether T-cell effector and regulatory responses can define clinical stages of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS We enrolled 200 adults with CHB who participated in the National Institutes of Health-supported Hepatitis B Research Network from 2011 through 2013 and 20(More)
UNLABELLED Clinical factors such as age, gender, alcohol use, and age-at-infection influence the progression to cirrhosis but cannot accurately predict the risk of developing cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The aim of this study was to develop a predictive signature for cirrhosis in Caucasian patients. All patients had(More)
Guiding Principles This document presents official recommendations of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) on the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus (HBV) infection in adults and children. Unlike previous AASLD practice guidelines, this guideline was developed in compliance with the Institute of Medicine standards for(More)