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Olfactory dysfunction increases with disease severity in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is early and independent of disease severity in Parkinson's disease (PD), but is absent in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Previous histopathologic studies of olfactory bulbs in AD have shown neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and senile(More)
Argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) was first reported as an adult-onset dementia, but recent studies have emphasized personality change, emotional imbalance, and memory problems as clinical features of AGD. AGD is characterized by spindle- or comma-shaped argyrophilic grains in the neuropil of entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. Immunohistochemistry(More)
Argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) is a recently recognized disorder whose relationship to dementia as well as genetic or biochemical features remain incompletely characterized in part due to diagnostic difficulties engendered by concomitant pathologies. In the present study, we reviewed a consecutive series of over 300 brains referred for evaluation of(More)
Clinicopathological observations suggest there is considerable overlap between vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used immunochemical methods to compare quantities of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides in post mortem brain samples from VaD, AD subjects and nondemented ageing controls. Total Abeta peptides extracted from temporal and frontal(More)
Striatal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with high affinity for nicotinic agonists are involved with the release of a number of neurotransmitters, including dopamine. Previous findings as to whether these receptors are changed in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease are inconsistent and no previous investigations have focused on these receptors in(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine if apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 influences the frequency of Alzheimer-type pathologic features in tauopathies, synucleinopathies, and frontotemporal degeneration and to determine if the frequency of Alzheimer-type pathologic features in synucleinopathies is similar to the frequency of such features in tauopathies and frontotemporal(More)
Two extended haplotypes of the tau gene (H1 and H2) have been described. The frequency of H1 haplotype is increased in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). PSP is associated with filamentous tau lesions in neurons and glia, which are reportedly composed exclusively of tau isoforms with four repeats in the microtubule-binding domain (4R tau). To determine(More)
The Towers of Hanoi and London are presumed to measure executive functions such as planning and working memory. Both have been used as a putative assessment of frontal lobe function. In this study, both tasks were administered to 61 normal adult participants to test the assumption that the two tasks are measuring the same cognitive processes. The results(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical features suggesting a diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) include early falls, axial rigidity, vertical supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, and levodopa unresponsiveness. When these clinical features are present, the diagnosis is almost always PSP, yet vascular disease sometimes has a similar presentation, referred to as vascular(More)
The CA2 sector of the hippocampus is relatively resistant to neurofibrillary tangles in aging and Alzheimer disease; however, some cases have selective neurofibrillary degeneration in CA2 with sparing of the more vulnerable CA1 sector. Cases such as this do not fit in the Braak and Braak staging scheme and can be considered to have an atypical pattern of(More)