Natalie A. Stephens

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Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness. While the closely related subspecies T. brucei brucei is highly susceptible to lysis by a subclass of human high-density lipoproteins (HDL) called trypanosome lytic factor (TLF), T. brucei rhodesiense is resistant and therefore able to establish acute and fatal(More)
Critical to human innate immunity against African trypanosomes is a minor subclass of human high-density lipoproteins, termed Trypanosome Lytic Factor-1 (TLF-1). This primate-specific molecule binds to a haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor (HpHbR) on the surface of susceptible trypanosomes, initiating a lytic pathway. Group 1 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense causes(More)
Trypanosome lytic factors (TLFs) are powerful, naturally occurring toxins in humans that provide sterile protection against infection by several African trypanosomes. These trypanocidal complexes predominantly enter the parasite by binding to the trypanosome haptoglobin/hemoglobin receptor (HpHbR), trafficking to the lysosome, causing membrane damage and,(More)
Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of both a veterinary wasting disease and human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness. The cell membrane of the developmental stage found within the mammalian host, the bloodstream form (BSF), is highly dynamic, exhibiting rapid rates of endocytosis and lateral flow of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored(More)
Trypanosoma brucei brucei is the causative agent of Nagana in cattle and can infect a wide range of mammals but is unable to infect humans because it is susceptible to the innate cytotoxic activity of normal human serum. A minor subfraction of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL), containing apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1), apolipoprotein L-I (APOL1) and(More)
Human high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) play an important role in human innate immunity to infection by African trypanosomes with a minor subclass, Trypanosome Lytic Factor-1 (TLF-1), displaying highly selective cytotoxicity to the veterinary pathogen Trypanosoma brucei brucei but not against the human sleeping sickness pathogens Trypanosoma brucei gambiense(More)
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