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OBJECTIVES To develop a 10-minute cognitive screening tool (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA) to assist first-line physicians in detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a clinical state that often progresses to dementia. DESIGN Validation study. SETTING A community clinic and an academic center. PARTICIPANTS Ninety-four patients meeting MCI(More)
Abstract An event-related brain potential (ERP) reflecting the acoustic-phonetic process in the phonological stage of word processing was recorded to the terminal words of spoken sentences. The peak latency of this negative-going response occurred between 270 and 300 msec after the onset of the terminal word. The independence of this response (the(More)
Cognitive control processes enable us to adjust our behavior to changing environmental demands. Although neuropsychological studies suggest that the critical cortical region for cognitive control is the prefrontal cortex, neuro-imaging studies have emphasized the interplay of prefrontal and parietal cortices. This raises the fundamental question about the(More)
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) manifests as memory impairment in the absence of dementia and progresses to Alzheimer's disease (AD) at a rate of around 15% per annum, versus 1-2% in the general population. It thus constitutes a primary target for investigation of early markers of AD. Language deficits occur early in AD, and performance on verbal tasks is(More)
In order to understand how the brain prepares for and executes a switch in task demand, we measured reaction time (RT), accuracy, and event-related brain potentials associated with performance in single and mixed-task blocks using a cued design. Our results show that trials which repeat in a mixed-task block (repeat trials) were more demanding than trials(More)
The current study addressed the question whether audiovisual (AV) speech can improve speech perception in older and younger adults in a noisy environment. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to investigate age-related differences in the processes underlying AV speech perception. Participants performed an object categorization task in three(More)
Diagnosis of different types of dementia is often based on clinical symptomatology rather than underlying pathology; therefore, accurate diagnosis depends on a thorough description of cognitive functioning in different dementias. Furthermore, direct comparison of cognitive functions between different types of dementia is necessary for differential(More)
Motivated by the demonstration of similarly localized adaptation of the hemodynamic response in a first (L1) and second (L2) language, this study examined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to spoken words in L1 and L2 in 15 English-French bilinguals. We examined whether the temporal pattern of N400 adaptation due to within-language repetitions (i.e.,(More)
BACKGROUND Cognition and mobility in older adults are closely associated and they decline together with aging. Studies evaluating associations between cognitive factors and gait performance in people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are scarce. In this study, our aim was to determine whether specific cognitive factors have a more identifiable effect on(More)
A recent paper by Bialystok et al in Neuropsychologia (vol. 45, pgs. 459 to 464) suggested that early bilingualism produced a statistically significant 4.1-year delay in onset of memory loss symptoms in older individuals with Alzheimer disease, possibly reflecting an increase in the cognitive reserve of these individuals. That study focused on multilingual(More)