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The CD1 family is a large cluster of non-polymorphic, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I-like molecules that bind distinct lipid-based antigens that are recognized by T cells. The most studied group of T cells that interact with lipid antigens are natural killer T (NKT) cells, which characteristically express a semi-invariant T-cell receptor(More)
Thousands of potentially antigenic peptides are encoded by an infecting pathogen; however, only a small proportion induce measurable CD8(+) T cell responses. To investigate the factors that control peptide immunogenicity, we have examined the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to a previously undefined epitope ((77)APQPAPENAY(86)) from the BZLF1 protein(More)
Although it has been established how CD1 binds a variety of lipid antigens (Ag), data are only now emerging that show how alphabeta T cell receptors (TCRs) interact with CD1-Ag. Using the structure of the human semiinvariant NKT TCR-CD1d-alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) complex as a guide, we undertook an alanine scanning mutagenesis approach to(More)
Little is known regarding the basis for selection of the semi-invariant alphabeta T cell receptor (TCR) expressed by natural killer T (NKT) cells or how this mediates recognition of CD1d-glycolipid complexes. We have determined the structures of two human NKT TCRs that differ in their CDR3beta composition and length. Both TCRs contain a conserved,(More)
The crystal structures of unliganded and liganded pMHC molecules provide a structural basis for TCR recognition yet they represent 'snapshots' and offer limited insight into dynamics that may be important for interaction and T cell activation. MHC molecules HLA-B*3501 and HLA-B*3508 both bind a 13 mer viral peptide (LPEP) yet only HLA-B*3508-LPEP induces a(More)
Malaria transmission-blocking (T-B) interventions are essential for malaria elimination. Small molecules that inhibit the Plasmodium ookinete-to-oocyst transition in the midgut of Anopheles mosquitoes, thereby blocking sporogony, represent one approach to achieving this goal. Chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs) on the Anopheles gambiae midgut(More)
BACKGROUND BMP/RA-inducible neural-specific protein 1 (Brinp1) is highly conserved in vertebrates, and continuously expressed in the neocortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and cerebellum from mid-embryonic development through to adulthood. METHODS Brinp1 knock-out (Brinp1(-/-)) mice were generated by Cre-recombinase-mediated removal of the third exon of(More)
Viral infection activates danger signals that are transmitted via the retinoic acid-inducible gene 1-like receptor (RLR), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR), and Toll-like receptor (TLR) protein signaling cascades. This places host cells in an antiviral posture by up-regulating antiviral cytokines including type-I interferon(More)
Mosquito-based malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (mTBVs) target midgut-surface antigens of the Plasmodium parasite's obligate vector, the Anopheles mosquito. The alanyl aminopeptidase N (AnAPN1) is the leading mTBV immunogen; however AnAPN1's role in Plasmodium infection of the mosquito and how anti-AnAPN1 antibodies functionally block parasite(More)
The rugged folding landscapes of functional proteins puts them at risk of misfolding and aggregation. Serine protease inhibitors, or serpins, are paradigms for this delicate balance between function and misfolding. Serpins exist in a metastable state that undergoes a major conformational change in order to inhibit proteases. However, conformational(More)